Testing Hadronic Interactions at Ultrahigh Energies with Air Showers Measured by the Pierre Auger Observatory.

@article{Aab2016TestingHI,
  title={Testing Hadronic Interactions at Ultrahigh Energies with Air Showers Measured by the Pierre Auger Observatory.},
  author={Alar Aab and P{\'e}rez Abreu and Michel Aglietta and Eung Jin Ahn and Imen Al Samarai and Ivone Freire M. Albuquerque and Ingomar Allekotte and Joe D. Allen and Paul Allison and Alejandro Almela and J Alvarez Castillo and Jaime Alvarez-Mu{\~n}iz and Michelangelo Ambrosio and Giulia Anastasi and Luis Alfredo Anchordoqui and Bel{\'e}n Andrada and Sofia Andringa and Carla Aramo and Fernando Arqueros and Nicusor Arsene and Hern{\'a}n Asorey and Pedro Assis and Julien Aublin and Gerardo Atencia Avila and Alina M. Badescu and Christine Baus and James J. Beatty and K. H. Becker and Jos{\'e} Antonio Orihuela Bellido and C N Muller Berat and Mario Edoardo Bertaina and Xavier Bertou and Peter L. Biermann and Pierre Billoir and Jonathan Biteau and Simon Garry Blaess and Armando Montesinos Blanco and J. E. Blazek and Carla Bleve and Hartwig Bl{\"u}mer and Martina Boh{\'a}{\vc}ov{\'a} and Denise Boncioli and Carla Brenda Bonifazi and Nataliia Borodai and Alison M. Botti and J. T. Brack and I. M. Br{\^a}ncuş and Thomas Bretz and Ariel M. Bridgeman and Florian Briechle and Peter Buchholz and Antonio Avila Bueno and Stijn J. Buitink and Marco Buscemi and Karen Salom'e Caballero-Mora and Barbara Caccianiga and Lorenzo Caccianiga and Ant{\^o}nio Varella Cancio and Fabrizio Canfora and Laurenctiu I. Caramete and Rossella Caruso and Antonella Castellina and Gabriella Cataldi and Lorenzo Cazon and Rosanna Cester and Arturo Galv{\'a}n Ch{\'a}vez and Andrea Chiavassa and Jos{\'e} Augusto Chinellato and J C Chirinos Diaz and Jan Chudoba and Roger William Clay and Roberta Colalillo and Alyson Coleman and Laura Collica and Maria Rita Coluccia and Raquel C. Conceicao and F. P{\'e}rez Contreras and M. Colo J. Cooper and St{\'e}phane Coutu and Corbin Edward Covault and James Cronin and Richard Dallier and Sebastiano D'Amico and Bratianu Daniel and Sergio Ricardo Dasso and Kai Daumiller and B. R. Dawson and Rafael Menck de Almeida and Sjakko J de Jong and Gaia De Mauro and J R T de Mello Neto and Ivan De Mitri and Jos{\'e} Eg{\'i}dio Paulo de Oliveira and V{\^a}nia de Souza and Julia Debatin and Laura Vela-Glez Del Peral and Olivier Deligny and Niraj Dhital and C. Di Giulio and Antonio Di Matteo and M L D{\'i}az Castro and F Rossoni Diogo and Carola Dobrigkeit and Juan Carlos D'Olivo and Alexei Dorofeev and R C Dos Anjos and Maŕıa Teresa Dova and Andrej Dundovic and Jan Ebr and R. Engel and Martin Erdmann and Morteza Erfani and Carlos Our{\'i}vio Escobar and Joao Espadanal and Agustina Etchegoyen and Heino Falcke and Kun Fang and Glennys Reynolds Farrar and Airton Campos Fauth and Norberto Fazzini and Andrew P. Ferguson and Brandon S. Fick and Juan Manuel Figueira and Alberto Filevich and Anita Filip{\vc}i{\'c} and Octavian Fratu and Mart'in Miguel Freire and Tsuneaki Fujii and Andrea Fuster and Francesca Fausta Gallo and B. Zamorano Garcia and Diego Garc{\'i}a-Pinto and Florian Sylvain Gate and Hartmut Gemmeke and Alexandru Gherghel-Lascu and Piera Luisa Ghia and Ugo Gregorio Giaccari and M Giammarchi and Maria Giller and Dariusz Głas and Christian Glaser and Henry Alexander Glass and Geraldina Golup and Mariano G{\'o}mez Berisso and P F G{\'o}mez Vitale and Nubia Yael Guti{\'e}rrez Gonz{\'a}lez and Ben Gookin and John Iv Gordon and Abdolhamid Gorgi and Peter J. Gorham and Philippe Gouffon and Nj Griffith and Aurelio F. Grillo and Trent D. Grubb and Fausto Guarino and Germano P. Guedes and Mat'ias Rolf Hampel and Patr{\'i}cia Santos Hansen and Diego Harari and Thomas Alexander Harrison and John L. Harton and Qader Dorosti Hasankiadeh and A. Haungs and Thomas Hebbeker and D. Heck and Phil Heimann and Alexander E. Herve and Gary C. Hill and Carlos Hojvat and Nicholas Hollon and Emmet Holt and Petr Homola and Joerg Rudolf Hoerandel and P{\'e}ter Gy{\"o}rgy Horv{\'a}th and Miroslav Hrabovsky and T. Huege and Jehanne Hulsman and Antonio Insolia and Paula Gina Isar and Ines Jandt and Stefan Jansen and C. Jarne and Jeffrey A. Johnsen and Mariela Josebachuili and A. Kaeaepae and Olga Kambeitz and K. H. Kampert and Peter Kasper and Igor I. Katkov and Bianca Gerlinde Keilhauer and E. Burton. Kemp and Roger M. Kieckhafer and H. O. Klages and M. Kleifges and Jonny Kleinfeller and Rainer Krause and Nicole Krohm and Daniel Kuempel and G Kukec Mezek and Norbert Kunka and A W Kuotb Awad and Danielle LaHurd and Luca Latronico and Markus Lauscher and Pascal Lautridou and Pauline Lebrun and Remigiusz Legumina and Marcelo A. Leigui de Oliveira and Antoine Letessier-Selvon and Isabelle Lhenry-Yvon and Karina Link and Lu{\'i}s Lopes and Rafael L{\'o}pez and A L{\'o}pez Casado and Anthony Lucero and Max Malacari and Manuela Mallamaci and Du{\vs}an Mand{\'a}t and Paul Matthew Mantsch and Analisa G. Mariazzi and V{\'i}ctor H. Mar{\'i}n and Ioana Codrina Maris and Giovanni Marsella and Daniele Martello and Humberto Mart{\'i}nez and O Mart{\'i}nez Bravo and J J Mas{\'i}as Meza and H. J. Mathes and Susanna Mathys and John A. J. Matthews and J. A. J. Matthews and G. Scandone Matthiae and D. Baroni Maurizio and Eric William Mayotte and Pawel Oskar Mazur and Campos Medina and Gustavo Medina-Tanco and V. B. Mello and Diego Fernando Andrade Melo and Alexander Menshikov and Sergio Messina and Mar{\'i}a Isabel Micheletti and Lukas Middendorf and Ignacio A. Minaya and L. Miramonti and Bogdan Mitrica and Laura Molina-Bueno and Silvia Mollerach and Franccois Montanet and Christian Morello and Mohajeri Mostafa and C{\'e}lio A. Moura and German Prof. Dr. M{\"u}ller and Marcio Aparecido Muller and Sarah D Mueller and Irene Gordillo Naranjo and Sergio Mart{\'i}nez Navas and Petr Ne{\vc}esal and Lukas Nellen and A Nelles and Jens U. Neuser and Pham Hai Huy Nguyen and Mihai Niculescu-Oglinzanu and Marcus Niechciol and Lukas Niemietz and Tim Niggemann and Debby Nitz and Dalibor Nosek and Vladimir V. Novotny and H. No{\vz}ka and Luis Carlos Alvarez Nunez and Livingstone Ochilo and Foteini Oikonomou and Angela Olinto and D Pakk Selmi-Dei and Miroslav Palatka and Juan Pallotta and Philipp Papenbreer and Gonzalo Parente and Alejandra Parra and Tracy K. Paul and Miroslav Pech and Fl{\'a}via da Silva Pedreira and Jan Pekala and Roberto Pelayo and Joan Pe{\~n}a-Rodr{\'i}guez and I. Pepe and Luiz Antonio Souza Pereira and Lucy A. Perrone and Emily Petermann and Clare Peters and Sergio Petrera and Jamyang Phuntsok and Ricardo N. Piegaia and Tanguy Pierog and Paula Pieroni and Marcos Pimenta and Valerio Pirronello and M. Concepcion Murieil Platino and Matthias Plum and Czeslaw Henryk Porowski and Ricardo Prado and Paolo Privitera and Michael Prouza and Eduardo Jaime Quel and Sven Querchfeld and Samantha Quinn and Julian Rautenberg and Olivier Ravel and Diego Ravignani and Beno{\^i}t Revenu and Jan Ř{\'i}dk{\'y} and Markus Risse and Pablo Roberto Ristori and Vincenzo Rizi and W Rodrigues de Carvalho and J Rodriguez Rojo and Mar{\'i}a Dolores Rodr{\'i}guez-Fr{\'i}as and Dmitriy V. Rogozin and Juan Antonio Rosado and Matthias Roth and Esteban Roulet and A. Clay R.W. Rovero and Steven J. Saffi and Alexandra Saftoiu and Humberto Magad{\'a}n Salazar and Alsubari Saleh and F Salesa Greus and Gaetano Salina and J D Sanabria Gomez and F. J. C{\'e}spedes S{\'a}nchez and Patricia Sanchez-Lucas and {\'E}rika Maria Monteiro Santos and Ednaldo O. Santos and Fr{\'e}d{\'e}ric Sarazin and Biplob Sarkar and R. Sarmento and Christian Sarmiento-Cano and R. Ochoa Sato and C. Scarso and Mark Schauer and Viviana Scherini and H. Schieler and Dieter Schmidt and O Scholten and H. J. Schoorlemmer and P. Schov{\'a}nek and Fred Georg Schroeder and Ariadne Lucia Schulz and Jl Schulz and Julian Schumacher and Sergio Sciutto and Alberto Segreto and Mariangela Settimo and Ashkan Shadkam and Ronald Cintra Shellard and Gunter Sigl and Octavian Sima and A. Śmiałkowski and Radom{\'i}r {\vS}m{\'i}da and Gregory R. Snow and P. K. Sommers and Steven Sonntag and J. N. Sorokin and Ruben Squartini and D. Stanca and Suzana Stani{\'c} and Joanna Stapleton and Jaroslaw Stasielak and Francesco Strafella and Amy Stutz and Federico Suarez and M Suarez Dur{\'a}n and Tristan William Sudholz and Tiina Suomij{\"a}rvi and Alberto Daniel Supanitsky and Michael S. Sutherland and John T. Swain and Zbigniew Szadkowski and Oscar Alejandro Taborda and Andres Manuel Garay Tapia and A. Sezgin Tepe and Vanessa Menezes Theodoro and Charles Timmermans and C J Todero Peixoto and Linda Tom{\'a}nkov{\'a} and Bernardo Tom{\'e} and Aurelio Siro Tonachini and G Torralba Elipe and D Torres Machado and Pavel M. Tr{\'a}vn{\'i}{\vc}ek and Martina Trini and Ralf E. Ulrich and Michael Unger and Manfred Dr. Urban and A. Valbuena-Delgado and Jos{\'e} F. Vald{\'e}s galicia and In{\'e}s Vali{\~n}o and Laura Valore and G van Aar and P van Bodegom and Ad M. van den Berg and Arl{\`e}ne van Vliet and Enrique Rodr{\'i}guez Varela and B. Vargas C{\'a}rdenas and Gary S � Varner and J. J. Rodŕıguez V{\'a}zquez and Ricardo Astorga V{\'a}zquez and Darko Veberi{\vc} and Valerio Verzi and Jakub Vicha and Monteverde Videla and Luis Villase{\~n}or and Serguei Vorobiov and Hernan Wahlberg and O Scar Wainberg and Dieter Andreas Walz and Alan Andrew Watson and Mark E. Weber Weber and Adolf Weindl and Lawrence Wiencke and Henryk Wilczynski and Tobias Winchen and David Wittkowski and Brian Wundheiler and Sarka Wykes and Liming Yang and Tolga Yapici and Diana Yel{\'o}s and Enrique Zas and Danilo Zavrtanik and Marko Zavrtanik and A. Vega Zepeda and Berthold Zimmermann and Marek Ziolkowski and Zhaoyun Zong and Felice Zuccarello},
  journal={Physical review letters},
  year={2016},
  volume={117 19},
  pages={
          192001
        }
}
Ultrahigh energy cosmic ray air showers probe particle physics at energies beyond the reach of accelerators. Here we introduce a new method to test hadronic interaction models without relying on the absolute energy calibration, and apply it to events with primary energy 6-16 EeV (E_{CM}=110-170  TeV), whose longitudinal development and lateral distribution were simultaneously measured by the Pierre Auger Observatory. The average hadronic shower is 1.33±0.16 (1.61±0.21) times larger than… CONTINUE READING

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