Test format and corrective feedback modify the effect of testing on long-term retention

  title={Test format and corrective feedback modify the effect of testing on long-term retention},
  author={Sean H. K. Kang and Kathleen B. McDermott and Henry L. Roediger},
  journal={European Journal of Cognitive Psychology},
  pages={528 - 558}
We investigated the effects of format of an initial test and whether or not students received corrective feedback on that test on a final test of retention 3 days later. In Experiment 1, subjects studied four short journal papers. Immediately after reading each paper, they received either a multiple choice (MC) test, a short answer (SA) test, a list of statements to read, or a filler task. The MC test, SA test, and list of statements tapped identical facts from the studied material. No feedback… 
Testing improves long-term retention in a simulated classroom setting
The benefits of testing on long-term retention of lecture material were examined in a simulated classroom setting. Participants viewed a series of three lectures on consecutive days and engaged in a
The Effect of Various Testing Conditions on Long-Term Retention of Reading Materials: The Case of Initial and Delayed Test Types, and Feedback on Test
This study investigated various testing conditions for their influence on long-term retention of reading materials. To do so, 84 English as Foreign Language (EFL) learners were randomly selected from
Generalizing test-enhanced learning from the laboratory to the classroom
Three experiments that extend the testing effect of brief articles, lectures, and materials in a college course to educationally relevant materials demonstrated a robust testing effect and revealed that an initial short-answer test produced greater gains on a final test than did an initial multiple-choice test.
Effects of repeated testing on short- and long-term memory performance across different test formats
This study examined whether practice testing with short-answer (SA) items benefits learning over time compared to practice testing with multiple-choice (MC) items, and rereading the material. More
When does the test-study-test sequence optimize learning and retention?
Possible critical aspects regarding test feedback and the availability of previous tests for helping students to optimize their restudy efforts after low- or no-stakes quizzes are suggested.
The testing effect: The role of feedback and collaboration in a tertiary classroom setting
SUMMARY Successful retrieval on a test compared to just re-studying material improves long-term retention—a phenomenon called the ‘testing effect’. This study investigated the role of feedback and
Testing the testing effect in the classroom
Laboratory studies show that taking a test on studied material promotes subsequent learning and retention of that material on a final test (termed the testing effect). Educational research has
Pretesting versus posttesting: Comparing the pedagogical benefits of errorful generation and retrieval practice.
Pretesting is highly competitive with posttesting and can yield similar, if not greater, pedagogical benefits, which have important implications for the incorporation of practice tests in education and training contexts.
The Effect of Type of Feedback in Multiple-Choice Testing on Long-Term Retention
Even participants who received Feedback 3 outperformed the control group, regardless of whether feedback followed correct or incorrect responses, in this investigated how different types of feedback in multiple-choice testing influence long-term retention.
Testing and metacognition: retrieval practise effects on metacognitive monitoring in learning from text
The potential of retrieval practise during learning to improve the accuracy of confidence judgments in future retrieval and the confidence judgments were more accurate and less biased in the testing condition compared to the control condition.


Testing versus review: Effects on retention.
Taking a test on content that has just been studied is known to enhance later retention of the material studied, but is testing more profitable than the same amount of time spent in review? High
Testing the testing effect in the classroom
Laboratory studies show that taking a test on studied material promotes subsequent learning and retention of that material on a final test (termed the testing effect). Educational research has
Testing Effects Measured with Alternate Test Forms
AbstractHigh school students studied a brief history text, then took either a short-answer test or a multiple-choice test on the material, or they completed a study habits questionnaire serving as a
Tests and test feedback as learning sources
Retrieval-induced facilitation: initially nontested material can benefit from prior testing of related material.
Three experiments examined how taking an initial test affects later memory for prose materials not initially tested, showing that testing enhanced recall 24 hr later for the initially nontested material.
The Power of Testing Memory: Basic Research and Implications for Educational Practice
This article selectively review laboratory studies that reveal the power of testing in improving retention and then turns to studies that demonstrate the basic effects in educational settings, including the related concepts of dynamic testing and formative assessment.
The positive and negative consequences of multiple-choice testing.
  • H. Roediger, E. Marsh
  • Education
    Journal of experimental psychology. Learning, memory, and cognition
  • 2005
The authors examined the consequences of taking a multiple-choice test on a later general knowledge test in which students were warned not to guess and obtained a large positive testing effect: Prior testing of facts aided final cued-recall performance.
When does feedback facilitate learning of words?
Supplying the correct answer after an incorrect response not only improved performance during the initial learning session--it also increased final retention by 494% and made little difference either immediately or at a delay, regardless of whether the subject was confident in the response.
Feedback in Written Instruction
When students respond to an instructional communication, telling them whether or not their answer is correct increases the amount of material remembered on a later test (Anderson, Kulhavy, & Andre,