Territorial defence and its seasonal decline in the speckled wood butterfly (Pararge aegeria)

@article{Wickman1983TerritorialDA,
  title={Territorial defence and its seasonal decline in the speckled wood butterfly (Pararge aegeria)},
  author={P. Wickman and C. Wiklund},
  journal={Animal Behaviour},
  year={1983},
  volume={31},
  pages={1206-1216}
}
Abstract By means of analysis of films (24 frames/s) of male-male interactions we show that male Pararge aegeria butterflies fight aggressively over ownership of sunspot territories in the ground layer of woodland. The duration of these encounters decreases from a mean of 50 s and 85 s in the first two days to a mean of 10 s after a week's activity. This decline is best correlated with the progression of the season but also with the daily maximum temperature and the density of males, measured… Expand
Temperature and territoriality in the Duke of Burgundy butterfly, Hamearis lucina
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