Territorial behavior of the red admiral,Vanessa atalanta (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) I. The role of climatic factors and early interaction frequency on territorial start time

  title={Territorial behavior of the red admiral,Vanessa atalanta (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) I. The role of climatic factors and early interaction frequency on territorial start time},
  author={R. Bitzer and K. C. Shaw},
  journal={Journal of Insect Behavior},
We examined the relative importance of climatic factors and population density to territorial start time ofVanessa atalanta males. Start time varies with solar altitude and therefore with seasons. We removed seasonal effects by converting start times to corresponding solar altitudes. Start time solar altitude correlates primarily with ambient temperature (Ta) and secondarily with substrate temperature (Ts), regardless of cloud cover. Overcast cloud cover resulted in later not earlier start… Expand

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