Terrestriality and Tool Use

@article{Visalberghi2005TerrestrialityAT,
  title={Terrestriality and Tool Use},
  author={Elisabetta Visalberghi and Dorothy Munkenbeck Fragaszy and Patr{\'i}cia Izar and Eduardo B. Ottoni},
  journal={Science},
  year={2005},
  volume={308},
  pages={951 - 952}
}
In their Brevia “Capuchin stone tool use in Caatinga dry forest” (10 Dec. 2004, p. 1909), A. C. de A. Moura and P. C. Lee report that in the dry Caatinga habitat of Piaui (northeastern Brazil), capuchin monkeys ( Cebus libidinosus ) dig for tubers and use stones to crack open embedded food. 
Energetic Payoff of Tool Use for Capuchin Monkeys in the Caatinga: Variation by Season and Habitat Type
TLDR
Predictions from the energetic bottleneck and opportunity models are analyzed to explain the use of stones to crack open encased fruit by capuchins in dry environments and indicate that specific nutritional requirements may play a role in explaining the continuous consumption of encased Fruit.
Habitual Stone-Tool Aided Extractive Foraging in White-Faced Capuchins, Cebus Capucinus
TLDR
A population of white-faced capuchins in Coiba National Park, Panama who habitually rely on hammerstone and anvil tool use to access structurally protected food items in coastal areas including Terminalia catappa seeds, hermit crabs, marine snails, terrestrial crabs, and other items offers unique opportunities to explore the ecological drivers and evolutionary underpinnings of stone tool use.
First record of tool use by wild populations of the yellow‐breasted capuchin monkey (Cebus xanthosternos) and new records for the bearded capuchin (Cebus libidinosus)
TLDR
Data is reported for the first time on tool use—stones as hammer and anvils to open nuts—in wild C. xanthosternos and a description of new tool using sites for C. libidinosus.
Habitual stone-tool-aided extractive foraging in white-faced capuchins, Cebus capucinus
TLDR
A population of white-faced capuchins in Coiba National Park, Panama who habitually rely on hammerstone and anvil tool use to access structurally protected food items in coastal areas including Terminalia catappa seeds, hermit crabs, marine snails, terrestrial crabs and other items offers unique opportunities to explore the ecological drivers and evolutionary underpinnings of stone tool use.
Spontaneous Tool Use by Wild Capuchin Monkeys (Cebus libidinosus) in the Cerrado
TLDR
It is proposed that the probability of the emergence of the use of pounding stones as tools may be dependent on the ecological variables that influence the degree of terrestriality and extractive foraging and the complex interaction of these factors.
Adaptability in stone tool use by wild capuchin monkeys (Sapajus libidinosus)
TLDR
Evidence of adaptability in the use of stone tools by the capuchin monkey population of Serra Talhada provides an example of the complexity that these primates demonstrate in food processing.
The manifold use of pounding stone tools by wild capuchin monkeys of Serra da Capivara National Park, Brazil
TLDR
The use of pounding stone tools is described in two not previously studied groups of capuchin monkeys in Serra da Capivara National Park, northeastern Brazil and they exhibited more diversity in the use of PSTs than any other known population to date.
Three stones for three seeds: natural occurrence of selective tool use by capuchins (Cebus libidinosus) based on an analysis of the weight of stones found at nutting sites
TLDR
The weight of hammers found on anvils and presumably used for nut‐cracking by individuals in two groups of wild unprovisioned capuchin monkeys are described and indicate that capuchins are capable of choosing stones of appropriate weight to effectively use pounding tools in natural environments without interference from humans.
Lemurs in Mangroves and Other Flooded Habitats
1 Nocturnal Primate Research Group, Department of Social Sciences, Oxford Brookes University, Gipsy Lane, OX3 0BP Oxford, UK 2 Biozentrum Grindel, Department of Animal Ecology and Conservation,
Diversity of nutcracking tool sites used by Sapajus libidinosus in Brazilian Cerrado
TLDR
It is argued that the occurrence and diversity of nutcracking tool sites result from complex interactions of environmental variables and social variables that need to be examined through long‐term research of habituated groups.
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References

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Wild capuchin monkeys (Cebus libidinosus) use anvils and stone pounding tools
TLDR
An exploratory investigation in an area where nut‐cracking by wild capuchin monkeys is common knowledge among local residents finds physical evidence that monkeys cracked nuts on rock outcrops, boulders, and logs (collectively termed anvils).
On the ecology and behavior ofCebus albifrons in eastern Colombia: I. Ecology
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A-503 contact-hr study of a 35-member group of Cebus albifrons in eastern Colombia in 1977 and 1978 exhibited a level of terrestriality not reported for other New World primates.
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Dry forest is widespread, usually transitional between semidesert or savanna and moist forest, and the largest proportion of dry forest ecosystems is in Africa and the world's tropical islands, where they account for 70-80% of the forested area.
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The world's dry forest heterogeneity of structure and function is shown regionally, and biogeographic patterns differ from those of wet forests, as does the spectrum of plant life-forms in terms of structure, physiology, phenology and reproduction.
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TLDR
Capuchins have independently evolved many of the traits that evolutionary anthropologists wish to explain about human origins: enormous brains, sophisticated tool use, social conventions, hunting of vertebrates, food sharing, frequent alloparenting, elaborate nonconceptive sex, medicinal plant use, and frequent (sometimes lethal) coalitionary aggression against conspecifics.