Termites (Isoptera): Their Phylogeny, Classification, and Rise to Ecological Dominance

@inproceedings{Engel2009TermitesT,
  title={Termites (Isoptera): Their Phylogeny, Classification, and Rise to Ecological Dominance},
  author={Michael S. Engel and David A. Grimaldi and Kumar. Krishna},
  year={2009}
}
Abstract Like ants, termites are entirely eusocial and have profound ecological significance in the tropics. Following upon recent studies reporting more than a quarter of all known fossil termites, we present the first phylogeny of termite lineages using exemplar Cretaceous, Tertiary, and Recent taxa. Relationships among Recent families were largely unaffected by the addition of extinct taxa, but the analysis revealed extensive grades of stem-group taxa and the divergence of some modern… 

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It is argued that the behavioural and ontogenetic characteristics of termite societies are the internalisation of a community of microorganisms derived from and representing an earlier external rumen, resulting in the extant eusociality characterised by generational overlap, proctodaeal feeding, altricial development, paedomorphosis and co-evolution with microorganisms.
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The apex of the gaster has an acidopore and, thus, allows definitive assignment of the fossil to the large extant subfamily Formicinae, members of which use a defensive spray of formic acid.
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