Tentacles of Venom: Toxic Protein Convergence in the Kingdom Animalia

@article{Fry2009TentaclesOV,
  title={Tentacles of Venom: Toxic Protein Convergence in the Kingdom Animalia},
  author={Bryan Grieg Fry and Kim Roelants and Janette A. Norman},
  journal={Journal of Molecular Evolution},
  year={2009},
  volume={68},
  pages={311-321}
}
The origin and evolution of venom in many animal orders remain controversial or almost entirely uninvestigated. Here we use cDNA studies of cephalopod posterior and anterior glands to reveal a single early origin of the associated secreted proteins. Protein types recoverd were CAP (CRISP, Antigen 5 [Ag5] and Pathogenesis-related [PR-1]), chitinase, peptidase S1, PLA2 (phospholipase A2), and six novel peptide types. CAP, chitinase, and PLA2 were each recovered from a single species… 

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