Tenfold Population Increase in Western Europe at the Neandertal–to–Modern Human Transition

@article{Mellars2011TenfoldPI,
  title={Tenfold Population Increase in Western Europe at the Neandertal–to–Modern Human Transition},
  author={Paul A. Mellars and Jennifer C. French},
  journal={Science},
  year={2011},
  volume={333},
  pages={623 - 627}
}
The ability of modern humans to sustain larger populations contributed to the decline of Neandertals in Western Europe. European Neandertals were replaced by modern human populations from Africa ~40,000 years ago. Archaeological evidence from the best-documented region of Europe shows that during this replacement human populations increased by one order of magnitude, suggesting that numerical supremacy alone may have been a critical factor in facilitating this replacement. 
Demography and the demise of Neandertals: a comment on 'Tenfold population increase in Western Europe at the Neandertal-to-modern human transition'.
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