Tenderness and Sympathy: Distinct Empathic Emotions Elicited by Different Forms of Need

@article{Lishner2011TendernessAS,
  title={Tenderness and Sympathy: Distinct Empathic Emotions Elicited by Different Forms of Need},
  author={David A Lishner and C. Daniel Batson and Elizabeth A. Huss},
  journal={Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin},
  year={2011},
  volume={37},
  pages={614 - 625}
}
Current need and vulnerability are two different forms of need. Integrating (a) cognitive-appraisal theories of emotion with (b) a view of human parental nurturance as emotionally based and cognitively generalizable, this article proposes that these two forms of need elicit distinct empathic emotions: Vulnerability evokes feelings of tenderness, whereas current need evokes feelings of sympathy. Results of two experiments support this proposal. Vulnerable targets elicited tenderness even when… 

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