Ten millennia of hepatitis B virus evolution

  title={Ten millennia of hepatitis B virus evolution},
  author={Arthur Kocher and Luka Papac and Rodrigo Barquera and Felix M. Key and Maria A. Spyrou and Ron H{\"u}bler and Adam Benjamin Rohrlach and Franziska Aron and Raphaela Stahl and Antje Wissgott and Florian van B{\"o}mmel and Marian D. Pfefferkorn and Alissa Mittnik and Vanessa Villalba-Mouco and Gunnar U Neumann and Ma{\"i}t{\'e} Rivollat and Marieke Sophia van de Loosdrecht and Kerttu Majander and Rezeda I Tukhbatova and Lyazzat Musralina and Ayshin Ghalichi and Sandra Penske and Susanna Sabin and Megan Michel and Joscha Gretzinger and Elizabeth A. Nelson and Tiago P. Ferraz and Kathrin N{\"a}gele and Cody Parker and Marcel Keller and Evelyn K Guevara and Michael Feldman and Stefanie Eisenmann and Eirini Skourtanioti and Karen Giffin and Guido Alberto Gnecchi-Ruscone and Susanne Friederich and V. Schimmenti and Valery Khartanovich and Marina K. Karapetian and Mikhail S Chaplygin and Vladimir V. Kufterin and Aleksandr A Khokhlov and Andrey A Chizhevsky and Dmitry A Stashenkov and Anna F. Kochkina and Cristina Tejedor-Rodr{\'i}guez and {\'I}{\~n}igo Garc{\'i}a-Mart{\'i}nez de Lagr{\'a}n and H{\'e}ctor Arcusa-Magall{\'o}n and Rafael Garrido-Pena and Jos{\'e} Ignacio Royo-Guill{\'e}n and Jan Nov{\'a}{\vc}ek and St{\'e}phane Rottier and Sacha Kacki and Sylvie Saintot and Elena Kaverzneva and Andrej B. Belinskiy and Petr Velem{\'i}nsk{\'y} and Petr Limbursk{\'y} and Michael Kostka and Louise Loe and Elizabeth Shepherd Popescu and Rachel J. Clarke and Alice Lyons and Richard Mortimer and Antti Sajantila and Yadira Chinique de Armas and Silvia Teresita Hernandez Godoy and Diana I Hern{\'a}ndez-Zaragoza and Jessica Pearson and Didier Binder and Philippe Lefranc and Anatoly R Kantorovich and Vladimir E. Maslov and Luca Lai and Magdalena Zoledziewska and Jessica F Beckett and Michaela Langov{\'a} and Al{\vz}běta Danielisov{\'a} and Tara Ingman and Gabriel Garc{\'i}a Ati{\'e}nzar and Maria Paz de Miguel Ib{\'a}{\~n}ez and Alejandro Romero and Alessandra Sperduti and Sophie Beckett and Susannah J. Salter and Emma D. Zilivinskaya and Dmitry V Vasil'ev and Kristina von Heyking and Richard L. Burger and Lucy C. Salazar and Luc Amkreutz and Masnav Navruzbekov and Eva Rosenstock and Carmen Alonso-Fern{\'a}ndez and Vladimir Slavchev and Alexey A Kalmykov and Biaslan Ch Atabiev and Elena Batieva and Micaela Alvarez Calmet and Bastien Llamas and Michael Schultz and Raiko Krauss and Javier Jim{\'e}nez-Echevarr{\'i}a and Michael Francken and Svetlana V. Shnaider and Peter de Knijff and Eveline Altena and Katrien Van de Vijver and Lars Fehren-Schmitz and Tiffiny A Tung and Sandra L{\"o}sch and M. V. Dobrovolskaya and Nikolaj Makarov and C. Read and Melanie Van Twest and Claudia Sagona and Peter C Ramsl and Murat Akar and K Aslihan Yener and Eduardo Carmona Ballestero and Francesco Cucca and Vittorio Mazzarello and Pilar Utrilla and Kurt M. Rademaker and Eva Fern{\'a}ndez-Dom{\'i}nguez and Douglas Baird and Patrick Semal and Lourdes M{\'a}rquez-Morf{\'i}n and Mirjana Roksandic and Hubert Steiner and Domingo C. Salazar-Garc{\'i}a and Natalia Shishlina and Yılmaz Selim Erdal and Fredrik Hallgren and Yavor Boyadzhiev and Kamen Boyadzhiev and Mario K{\"u}{\ss}ner and Duncan Sayer and P{\"a}ivi Onkamo and Robin Skeates and Manuel Rojo-Guerra and Alexandra P. Buzhilova and Elmira Khussainova and Leyla B Djansugurova and Arman Z Beisenov and Zainolla Samashev and Ken Massy and Marcello A. Mannino and Vyacheslav Moiseyev and Kristiina Mannermaa and Oleg P. Balanovsky and M. F. Deguilloux and Sabine Reinhold and Svend Hansen and Egor Kitov and Miroslav Dobe{\vs} and Michal Ern{\'e}e and Harald Meller and Kurt W. Alt and Kay Pr{\"u}fer and Christina G Warinner and Stephan Schiffels and Philipp W. Stockhammer and Kirsten I. Bos and Cosimo Posth and Alexander Herbig and Wolfgang Haak and Johannes Krause and Denise K{\"u}hnert},
  pages={182 - 188}
Description Ancient DNA traces the history of hepatitis B Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infections represent a worldwide human health concern. To study the history of this pathogen, Kocher et al. identified 137 human remains with detectable levels of virus dating between 400 and 10,000 years ago. Sequencing and analyses of these ancient viruses suggested a common ancestor between 12,000 and 20,000 years ago. There is no evidence indicating that HBV was present in the earliest humans as they spread… 
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  • P. Simmonds
  • Biology
    Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological sciences
  • 2001
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