Evaluation of different temporary immersion systems (BIT®, BIG, and RITA®) in the micropropagation of Vanilla planifolia Jacks
Somatic embryogenesis in cork oak (Quercus suber L.) is an efficient tool that allows the production of large number of embryos from selected quality and productive trees. Temporary immersion systems (TIS) are an alternative to semi-solid or liquid culture that combine the advantages of liquid culture and avoid the associated problems. Parameters that affect the TIS multiplication efficiency of Q. suber L. embryogenic cultures were evaluated. Immersion frequencies of 1 min every 6 or 4 h increased the fresh weight 3.7 or 7.5-fold compared with an immersion frequency of 1 min every 12 h or cultures on semi-solid medium, respectively. The cellular fate of embryogenic cultures was also affected by the immersion frequency, 1 min every 6 h was the best for mass propagation of proliferative developmental stages (embryogenic calli and embryo clusters) while 1 min every 4 h promoted the formation of single, fully developed cotyledonary embryos. An initial amount of 1.5 g fresh weight of proliferative tissues produced the best results in RITA® containers while 0.5 g of embryogenic callus was the best for semi-solid cultures.