Growth stage-dependent expression of 6-hydroxy-d-nicotine oxidase of the nicotine regulon of Arthrobacter oxidans
A collection of promoters from the Micromonospora echinospora strain that produces the calichemicin antitumor antibiotics was identified by the use of the promoter-probe vector pIJ486 in Streptomyces lividans. A 0.4-kilobase-pair Micromonospora DNA fragment was found to contain multiple tandem promoters which were characterized by S1 nuclease protection, Northern blotting, and DNA sequence determination. Analysis of RNA isolated from timed Micromonospora cultures revealed two classes of promoters within the 0.4-kilobase-pair fragment. The P2 promoter was maximally active during the exponential phase. In contrast, the P1 promoter cluster, consisting of three closely spaced start sites located 80 base pairs upstream of P2, was maximally active during the stationary phase. Because P1 was strongly induced in synchrony with calichemicin drug production, P1 is of potential utility in expressing cloned genes specifically during the stationary phase.