Temporal precision in the neural code and the timescales of natural vision

@article{Butts2007TemporalPI,
  title={Temporal precision in the neural code and the timescales of natural vision},
  author={Daniel A. Butts and Chong Weng and Jianzhong Jin and Chun-I Yeh and Nicholas A. Lesica and Jose-Manuel Alonso and Garrett B. Stanley},
  journal={Nature},
  year={2007},
  volume={449},
  pages={92-95}
}
The timing of action potentials relative to sensory stimuli can be precise down to milliseconds in the visual system, even though the relevant timescales of natural vision are much slower. The existence of such precision contributes to a fundamental debate over the basis of the neural code and, specifically, what timescales are important for neural computation. Using recordings in the lateral geniculate nucleus, here we demonstrate that the relevant timescale of neuronal spike trains depends on… 

Temporal Precision in the Visual Pathway through the Interplay of Excitation and Stimulus-Driven Suppression

TLDR
A more complex computation underlying thalamic responses to artificial and natural stimuli that has implications for understanding how visual information is represented in the early stages of visual processing is described.

The Timing of Vision – How Neural Processing Links to Different Temporal Dynamics

TLDR
Simulations show how predominantly local recurrent connections and long neural time-constants enable the integration and build-up of firing rates on this timescale, and how a non-linear model with attractor states induced by strong recurrent connectivity provides straightforward explanations for several recent experimental observations.

Modulation of Temporal Precision in Thalamic Population Responses to Natural Visual Stimuli

TLDR
A generalized linear model (GLM) that combines stimulus-driven elements with spike-history dependence associated with intrinsic cellular dynamics is shown to predict the fine timing precision of LGN responses to natural scene stimuli, the corresponding correlation structure across nearby neurons in the population, and the continuous modulation of spike timing precision and latency across neurons.

Control of the temporal interplay between excitation and inhibition by the statistics of visual input

TLDR
It is pointed that correlated inhibition can explain, at least in part, sparse and reliable spiking activity as observed in response to natural scenes, and is consistent with its role reported from other sensory modalities and cortical areas.

Millisecond encoding precision of auditory cortex neurons

Neurons in auditory cortex are central to our perception of sounds. However, the underlying neural codes, and the relevance of millisecond-precise spike timing in particular, remain debated. Here, we

Reading spike timing without a clock: intrinsic decoding of spike trains

TLDR
Application of this formalism to auditory, visual and somatosensory data shows that information carried by millisecond-scale spike times can be decoded robustly even with little or no independent external knowledge of stimulus time.

The episodic nature of spike trains in the early visual pathway.

TLDR
Nearly every event is preserved across contrast despite changes in their fine-time-scale features, suggesting that--at least on a coarse level--the stimulus selectivity of LGN neurons is contrast invariant.

Timescales of Multineuronal Activity Patterns Reflect Temporal Structure of Visual Stimuli

TLDR
Using multi-electrode recordings from cat visual cortex, it is shown that cortical responses can be described as trajectories in a high-dimensional pattern space that evolve on a continuum of coexisting timescales that strongly relate to the temporal properties of stimuli.

Temporal Limits of Visual Motion Processing: Psychophysics and Neurophysiology

TLDR
A striking similarity in stimulus dependence is demonstrated between the temporal fidelity established in the retina and the temporal limits of human motion discrimination and the potential trade-off between spatial and temporal resolution.

Temporal Limits of Visual Motion Processing: Psychophysics and Neurophysiology

TLDR
A striking similarity in stimulus dependence is demonstrated between the temporal fidelity established in the retina and the temporal limits of human motion discrimination and the potential trade-off between spatial and temporal resolution.
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 33 REFERENCES

Temporal Resolution of Ensemble Visual Motion Signals in Primate Retina

TLDR
It is suggested that cortical neurons could filter their inputs on a time scale of tens of milliseconds, rather than relying on the precise times of individual input spikes, to sense motion most reliably.

Temporal Coding of Visual Information in the Thalamus

TLDR
It is found that temporal patterns sometimes introduce redundancy but often encode visual information, and a single LGN cell can encode much more visual information than had been demonstrated previously.

Responses to natural scenes in cat V1.

TLDR
Responses to natural movies show a large variability over time because of activity fluctuations induced by rapid stimulus motion, and it is shown that these fluctuations are not dependent on the detailed spatial properties of the stimuli but depend on their temporal jitter.

Variability and information in a neural code of the cat lateral geniculate nucleus.

TLDR
This issue was investigated in single cells of the lateral geniculate nucleus of barbiturate-anesthetized cats by quantifying the degree of precision in and the information transmission properties of individual spike train responses to full field, binary (bright or dark), flashing stimuli.

Reproducibility and Variability in Neural Spike Trains

TLDR
Variability and reproducibility are quantified with ideas from information theory, and measured spike sequences in H1 carry more than twice the amount of information they would if they followed the variance-mean relation seen with constant inputs.

The Dynamics of Spatiotemporal Response Integration in the Somatosensory Cortex of the Vibrissa System

TLDR
A response model was developed that incorporated the experimentally measured modulations in response magnitude, latency, and precision induced by cross-vibrissa interactions and indicated that spatiotemporal interactions enhance discrimination under certain stimulus time scales.

Temporal Precision of Spike Trains in Extrastriate Cortex of the Behaving Macaque Monkey

TLDR
Single neurons recorded in a previous study from cortical area MT in the behaving monkey respond to dynamic and unpredictable motion stimuli with a markedly reproducible temporal modulation that is precise to a few milliseconds.

Temporal encoding in nervous systems: A rigorous definition

We propose a rigorous definition for the termtemporal encoding as it is applied to schemes for the representation of information withinpatterns of neuronal action potentials, and distinguish temporal