Temporal evolution of the electric field accelerating electrons away from the auroral ionosphere

@article{Marklund2001TemporalEO,
  title={Temporal evolution of the electric field accelerating electrons away from the auroral ionosphere},
  author={G{\"o}ran Marklund and Nickolay Ivchenko and Tomas M. Karlsson and A. Fazakerley and M. Dunlop and P. Lindqvist and Stephan Christoph Buchert and Christopher Lloyd Owen and Mary B. Taylor and A. Vaivalds and P. Carter and Marcel Andr{\'e} and Andr{\'e} Balogh},
  journal={Nature},
  year={2001},
  volume={414},
  pages={724-727}
}
The bright night-time aurorae that are visible to the unaided eye are caused by electrons accelerated towards Earth by an upward-pointing electric field1,2,3. On adjacent geomagnetic field lines the reverse process occurs: a downward-pointing electric field accelerates electrons away from Earth4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11. Such magnetic-field-aligned electric fields in the collisionless plasma above the auroral ionosphere have been predicted12, but how they could be maintained is still a matter for… CONTINUE READING

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