Non-invasive estimation of myocardial infarction by means of a heart-model-based imaging approach: A simulation study
We studied the evolution of body-surface potential map (BSPM) patterns in 32 patients following first acute inferior myocardial infarction. Initial BSPMs were obtained at a mean of 79 hours post-infarction; follow-up BSPMs, a mean of eight months post-infarction. Temporal area-of-difference maps, constructed by subtracting initial from follow-up group-mean BSPMs, revealed reciprocal changes over the superior and inferior torso for both Q-zone and ST-segment time-integral distributions. The temporal changes in Q-zone patterns were small but definite: over the inferior torso there was a relative gain in Q-zone values and, over the superior torso, a relative decrease. In contrast, there were marked spatial and quantitative changes of ST-segment distributions during the follow-up period. Over the superior torso, particularly anteriorly, there was a gain in ST-segment values; over the inferior torso, a decrease. With the small temporal changes in Q-zone time-integral distributions, individual Q-zone maps continued to reflect a pattern of inferior myocardial infarction at follow-up. In contrast, the marked temporal changes in ST-segment time-integral distributions resulted in individual map patterns at follow-up that were nearly indistinguishable from normal ST-segment maps. The relatively small changes in depolarization time-integral patterns during the early post-infarction period suggest that the Q-zone patterns of the acute phase of myocardial infarction reflect near-irreversible or completed myocardial damage. The marked normalization of repolarization time-integral patterns during the recovery phase suggests, however, that there are also considerable areas of myocardium-at-risk during the early phase of the infarction process which stabilize with time.