Temporal encoding in nervous systems: A rigorous definition

  title={Temporal encoding in nervous systems: A rigorous definition},
  author={Fr{\'e}d{\'e}ric E. Theunissen and John P. Miller},
  journal={Journal of Computational Neuroscience},
We propose a rigorous definition for the termtemporal encoding as it is applied to schemes for the representation of information withinpatterns of neuronal action potentials, and distinguish temporal encoding schemes from those based on window-averagedmean rate encoding. [] Key Method We distinguish between the concepts of theencoding time window and theintegration time window, the latter of which is defined as the duration of a stimulus signal that affects the response of the neuron.

Identifying Temporal Codes in Spontaneously Active Sensory Neurons

The effects of artificial jitter on various spike train and information metrics were derived analytically, and this theory was validated using data from afferent neurons of the turtle vestibular and paddlefish electrosensory systems, and from model neurons.

Temporal Encoding in a Nervous System

Results show that single neurons are capable of using temporal patterns of spikes as fundamental symbols in their neural code, and that they communicate specific stimulus distributions to subsequent neural structures.

Information processing in the LGN: a comparison of neural codes and cell types

This work analyzed the responses of LGN neurons to spatially homogeneous spots of various sizes with temporally random luminance modulation, and compared the Firing Rate with the Shannon Information Transmission Rate, which quantifies the information contained in the temporal relationships between spikes.

What can spike train distances tell us about the neural code?

Processing of Auditory Midbrain Interspike Intervals by Model Neurons

The resulting modeled cells—point neurons optimized through multidimensional searching—were successfully tuned to discriminate patterns in specific ranges of ISIs, strengthening the credibility of ISI coding in the brain and lends credence to its role in auditory processing.

Temporal precision in the neural code and the timescales of natural vision

It is demonstrated that the relevant timescale of neuronal spike trains depends on the frequency content of the visual stimulus, and that ‘relative’, not absolute, precision is maintained both during spatially uniform white-noise visual stimuli and naturalistic movies.

Neural coding of natural stimuli: information at sub-millisecond resolution

This issue, using the motion – sensitive neurons of the fly visual system as a test case, finds that significant amounts of visual information are represented by details of the spike train at millisecond and sub-millisecond precision, even though the sensory input has a correlation time of ~60 ms.

Information Carried by Population Spike Times in the Whisker Sensory Cortex can be Decoded Without Knowledge of Stimulus Time

The results suggest that decoding schemes based on millisecond-precise spike times are likely to subserve robust and information-rich transmission of information in the somatosensory system.

Accuracy of rate coding: When shorter time window and higher spontaneous activity help.

An analysis based on the number of observed spikes assuming the stochastic perfect integrate-and-fire model with a change point, representing the stimulus onset, shows that the Fisher information is nonmonotonic with respect to the length of the observation period, and observes that the signal can be enhanced by noise.

Adaptive Spike Threshold Enables Robust and Temporally Precise Neuronal Encoding

The adaptive spike threshold reduces information loss during intracellular information transfer, improves stimulus discriminability and ensures robust decoding across membrane states in a regime of highly correlated inputs, similar to those seen in sensory nuclei during the encoding of sensory information.



Information encoding and the responses of single neurons in the primate temporal visual cortex.

Analysis of spike trains of single neurons recorded in the temporal lobe visual cortical areas of rhesus macaques provided evidence that a short period of firing taken close to the start of the neuronal response provides a reasonable proportion of the total information that would be available if a long period of neuronal firing were utilized.

Temporal encoding of two-dimensional patterns by single units in primate primary visual cortex. I. Stimulus-response relations.

A new approach for investigating visual system neuronal activity in which single neurons are considered to be communication channels transmitting stimulus-dependent codes in their responses was developed and applied to single-striate cortical neurons, showing striking stimulus-related strength and temporal modulation.

Decoding cortical neuronal signals: Network models, information estimation and spatial tuning

It is found that each neuron encodes information about many features at multiple scales in the primary visual cortex of awake monkeys, and that a feed-forward neural network proved to be the best of these models.

Temporal encoding of two-dimensional patterns by single units in primate inferior temporal cortex. III. Information theoretic analysis.

The approach uses the principal components of the response waveform to derive a code for representing information about the stimuli, regarded as an indication of the neuron's intrinsic coding scheme, because it is based on the statistical properties of the neuronal responses.

Temporal coding in the frog auditory midbrain: the influence of duration and rise-fall time on the processing of complex amplitude-modulated stimuli.

Despite the relatively stable spike counts of neurons showing all-pass functions, the peristimulus time histograms (PSTHs) deriving from responses to slower rise-fall time stimuli exhibited a longer and somewhat more variable onset latency.

Temporal encoding of two-dimensional patterns by single units in primate inferior temporal cortex. I. Response characteristics.

The responses of IT neurons in alert behaving monkeys to a large set of two-dimensional black and white patterns showed temporal modulation of the spike train that could not be represented by a change in the spike count alone.

Encoding of Olfactory Information with Oscillating Neural Assemblies

It is proposed that odors are encoded by specific but dynamic assemblies of coherently oscillating neurons that facilitate combinatorial coding and associative learning in these, and possibly other, sensory networks.

Rigorous and extended application of information theory to the afferent visual system of the cat

Intracellular recording were obtained from P-cells of the LGN of the cat of a single presynaptic retinal ganglion cell and the postsynaptic P-cell and the transient behaviour of the system in response to a flash was fully considered for information calculations.

Neuronal and behavioral sensitivity to binaural time differences in the owl

  • A. MoiseffM. Konishi
  • Psychology, Biology
    The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience
  • 1981
It is demonstrated that ongoing time disparity (OTD) was a sufficient cue for the azimuthal component of receptive fields of auditory neurons in the owl (Tyto alba) midbrain and that OTDs were sufficient to mediate meaningful behavioral responses and confirmed the behavioral relevance of OTD as a cue for localizing a sound in azimut.