Temperature and voltage measurement in quantum systems far from equilibrium

  title={Temperature and voltage measurement in quantum systems far from equilibrium},
  author={Abhay Shastry and Charles A. Stafford},
  journal={Physical Review B},
We show that a local measurement of temperature and voltage for a quantum system in steady state, arbitrarily far from equilibrium, with arbitrary interactions within the system, is unique when it exists. This is interpreted as a consequence of the second law of thermodynamics. We further derive a necessary and sufficient condition for the existence of a solution. In this regard, we find that a positive temperature solution exists whenever there is no net population inversion. However, when… 

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