Temperature and voltage measurement in quantum systems far from equilibrium

  title={Temperature and voltage measurement in quantum systems far from equilibrium},
  author={Abhay Shastry and Charles A. Stafford},
  journal={Physical Review B},
We show that a local measurement of temperature and voltage for a quantum system in steady state, arbitrarily far from equilibrium, with arbitrary interactions within the system, is unique when it exists. This is interpreted as a consequence of the second law of thermodynamics. We further derive a necessary and sufficient condition for the existence of a solution. In this regard, we find that a positive temperature solution exists whenever there is no net population inversion. However, when… 

Figures from this paper

Local temperatures out of equilibrium

Coldest Measurable Temperature

  • Abhay Shastry
  • Physics
    Theory of Thermodynamic Measurements of Quantum Systems Far from Equilibrium
  • 2019
In Chap. 2 we found that the second law of thermodynamics imposes strong restrictions on what can be considered a meaningful thermodynamic measurement. We ask a question motivated by the third law of

Thermometry in the quantum regime: recent theoretical progress

Controlling and measuring the temperature in different devices and platforms that operate in the quantum regime is, without any doubt, essential for any potential application. In this review, we

Effect of quantum resonances on local temperature in nonequilibrium open systems

Author(s): Zeng, Xiangzhong; Ye, Lyuzhou; Zhang, Daochi; Xu, Rui-Xue; Zheng, Xiao; Di Ventra, Massimiliano | Abstract: Measuring local temperatures of open systems out of equilibrium is emerging as a

Quantum thermodynamics of nanoscale steady states far from equilibrium

We develop an exact quantum thermodynamic description for a noninteracting nanoscale steady state that couples strongly with multiple reservoirs. It is demonstrated that there exists a steady-state

STM as a Thermometer

  • Abhay Shastry
  • Physics
    Theory of Thermodynamic Measurements of Quantum Systems Far from Equilibrium
  • 2019
In Chap. 2 we showed that a measurement of temperature has to be accompanied with a measurement of voltage as well. We discuss here the experimental consequences of the results of Chap. 2. The best

The third law of thermodynamics in open quantum systems

We consider open quantum systems consisting of a finite system of independent fermions with arbitrary Hamiltonian coupled to one or more equilibrium fermion reservoirs (which need not be in

steady-state conversion of heat to work the

  • Physics
  • 2022
Summary: In recent years, the study of heat to work conversion has been re-invigorated by nanotechnol-ogy. Steady-state devices do this conversion without any macroscopic moving parts, through

Local entropy of a nonequilibrium fermion system

The local entropy of a nonequilibrium system of independent fermions is investigated and analyzed in the context of the laws of thermodynamics. It is shown that the local temperature and chemical



Statistical Mechanics:

AbstractPROF. R. H. FOWLER'S monumental work on statistical mechanics has, in this the second edition, in his own modest words, been rearranged and brought more up to date. But the new volume is much

Nonequilibrium Many-Body Theory of Quantum Systems: A Modern Introduction

Preface 1. Second quantization 2. Getting familiar with second quantization: model Hamiltonians 3. Time-dependent problems and equations of motion 4. The contour idea 5. Many-particle Green's

Introduction to Scanning Tunneling Microscopy

The scanning tunnelling microscope (STM) was invented by Binnig and Rohrer and received a Nobel Prize of Physics in 1986. Together with the atomic force microscope (AFM), it enables non-destructive


  • Rev. B 90, 235438
  • 2014

ArXiv e-prints 1409.3179v1 (2014), arXiv:1409.3179v1 [cond-mat.mes-hall

  • 2014


  • Rev. B 40, 3409
  • 1989


  • Rev. B 32, 1846
  • 1985


  • Rev. B 33, 3020
  • 1986


  • Rev. B 85, 125120
  • 2012

The Nature of the Physical World