# Temperature and voltage measurement in quantum systems far from equilibrium

@article{Shastry2016TemperatureAV, title={Temperature and voltage measurement in quantum systems far from equilibrium}, author={Abhay Shastry and Charles A. Stafford}, journal={Physical Review B}, year={2016}, volume={94}, pages={155433} }

We show that a local measurement of temperature and voltage for a quantum system in steady state, arbitrarily far from equilibrium, with arbitrary interactions within the system, is unique when it exists. This is interpreted as a consequence of the second law of thermodynamics. We further derive a necessary and sufficient condition for the existence of a solution. In this regard, we find that a positive temperature solution exists whenever there is no net population inversion. However, when…

## 14 Citations

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