Temperate rainforests near the South Pole during peak Cretaceous warmth

  title={Temperate rainforests near the South Pole during peak Cretaceous warmth},
  author={Johann Philipp Klages and Ulrich Salzmann and Torsten Bickert and C. Hillenbrand and Karsten Gohl and Gerhard Kuhn and Steven M. Bohaty and J{\"u}rgen Titschack and Juliane M{\"u}ller and Thomas Frederichs and Thorsten Bauersachs and Werner Ehrmann and Tina van de Flierdt and P. S. Pereira and Robert D. Larter and Gerrit Lohmann and Igor Niezgodzki and Gabriele Uenzelmann‐Neben and Maximilian Zundel and Cornelia Spiegel and Chris Mark and David M. Chew and Jane E. Francis and Gernot Nehrke and Florian Schwarz and James A. Smith and Tim Freudenthal and Oliver Esper and Heiko P{\"a}like and Thomas A. Ronge and Ricarda Dziadek and V. J. E. B. C. K. K. Y. F. M. Afanasyeva Arndt Ebermann Gebhardt Hochmuth K{\"u}ssne and Victoria Afanasyeva and Jan Erik Arndt and Benjamin Ebermann and Catalina Gebhardt and Katharina Hochmuth and Kevin K{\"u}ssner and Yani Najman and Florian Riefstahl and Mirko Scheinert},
The mid-Cretaceous period was one of the warmest intervals of the past 140 million years 1 – 5 , driven by atmospheric carbon dioxide levels of around 1,000 parts per million by volume 6 . In the near absence of proximal geological records from south of the Antarctic Circle, it is disputed whether polar ice could exist under such environmental conditions. Here we use a sedimentary sequence recovered from the West Antarctic shelf—the southernmost Cretaceous record reported so far—and show that a… 
A large West Antarctic Ice Sheet explains early Neogene sea-level amplitude.
Geochemical and petrographic data show glacimarine sediments recovered at International Ocean Discovery Program Site U1521 in the central Ross Sea derive from West Antarctica, requiring the presence of a large West Antarctic Ice Sheet covering most of the Ross Sea continental shelf.
Impact of global cooling on Early Cretaceous high pCO2 world during the Weissert Event
Modelling, high-resolution bulk organic carbon isotopes and chronostratigraphically calibrated sea surface temperature (SSTs) based on an organic paleothermometer (the TEX86 proxy) confirm a 3.0 °C global mean surface cooling across the Weissert Event, which translates into a ~40% drop in atmospheric pCO2 over a period of ~700 thousand years.
The Sabrina Microfloras of East Antarctica: Late Cretaceous, Paleogene or Reworked?
ABSTRACT The published latest Palaeocene to Early–Middle Eocene age limits of the Sabrina microfloras, offshore Aurora Subglacial Basin, East Antarctica, largely depend on 1970s age-range data for
Vegetation change across the Drake Passage region linked to late Eocene cooling and glacial disturbance after the Eocene–Oligocene Transition
Abstract. The role and climatic impact of the opening of the Drake Passage and how it affected both marine and terrestrial environments across the Eocene-Oligocene Transition (EOT ~ 34 Ma) period
Wildfires in the Campanian of James Ross Island: a new macro-charcoal record for the Antarctic Peninsula
The Cretaceous “high-fire” period was a global event that reached almost all continental masses during that period in Earth’s history. The extensive wildfires directly affected plant communities.
Marine organic carbon burial increased forest fire frequency during Oceanic Anoxic Event 2
Volcanic-driven nutrient flux to the oceans stimulated marine productivity and organic matter burial during Oceanic Anoxic Event 2 (OAE2; ~94 million years ago). While the preferential burial of
A heterocyte glycolipid-based calibration to reconstruct past continental climate change
It is shown that heterocyte glycolipids of diazotrophic heterocytous cyanobacteria occur ubiquitously in equatorial East African lakes as well as polar to tropical freshwater environments, and the relative abundance of HG26 diols and keto-ols, quantified by the HDI26, is significantly correlated with surface water temperature (SWT).
Carbon Isotopic Signature and Organic Matter Composition of Cenomanian High-Latitude Paleosols of Southern Patagonia
The Cenomanian Mata Amarilla Formation (MAF) in southern Patagonia (~55° S paleolatitude, Austral-Magallanes Basin, Argentina) is composed mainly of stacked fluvial deposits with intercalated


Persistent near-tropical warmth on the Antarctic continent during the early Eocene epoch
It is shown that the climate in lowland settings along the Wilkes Land coast (at a palaeolatitude of about 70° south) supported the growth of highly diverse, near-tropical forests characterized by mesothermal to megathermal floral elements including palms and Bombacoideae.
The rise and fall of the Cretaceous Hot Greenhouse climate
Abstract A compilation of foraminiferal stable isotope measurements from southern high latitude (SHL) deep-sea sites provides a novel perspective important for understanding Earth's paleotemperature
Isotopic Evidence for Glaciation During the Cretaceous Supergreenhouse
The Turonian was one of the warmest periods of the Phanerozoic eon, with tropical sea surface temperatures over 35°C, and high-amplitude sea-level changes and positive δ18O excursions in marine limestones suggest that glaciation events may have punctuated this episode of extreme warmth.
Mid-Cretaceous (Albian–Santonian) sea surface temperature record of the tropical Atlantic Ocean
Paleoclimate records of geologic time periods characterized by extreme global warmth such as the mid-Cretaceous are important for a better understanding of the Earth9s climate system operating in an
High temperatures in the Late Cretaceous Arctic Ocean
Arctic palaeotemperatures from these Upper Cretaceous deposits are determined using TEX86, a new palaeothermometer that is based on the composition of membrane lipids derived from a ubiquitous component of marine plankton, Crenarchaeota, and infer an average sea surface temperature of ∼15 °C for the Arctic Ocean about 70 million years ago.
Antarctic subtropical humid episode at the Paleocene-Eocene boundary: Clay-mineral evidence
Clay-mineral assemblages from East Antarctica have been analyzed at high stratigraphic resolution (20 to 1 ka) throughout the interval from 55.6 to 55.0 Ma, which includes the terminal Paleocene
Latest Cretaceous-earliest Paleogene vegetation and climate change at the high southern latitudes: Palynological evidence from Seymour Island, Antarctic Peninsula
Abstract Fluctuations in Late Cretaceous climate were already influencing biotic change prior to the environmental upheaval at the Cretaceous–Paleogene (K–Pg) boundary, but their general nature,
Evidence for ice-free summers in the late Miocene central Arctic Ocean
The presence of IP25 as a proxy for spring sea-ice cover and alkenone-based summer sea-surface temperatures >4 °C that support a seasonal sea- ice cover with an ice-free summer season being predominant during the late Miocene in the central Arctic Ocean is documented.
100 Million Years of Antarctic Climate Evolution: Evidence from Fossil Plants
The evolution of Antarctic climate from a Cretaceous greenhouse into the Neogene icehouse is captured within a rich record of fossil leaves, wood, pollen, and flowers from the Antarctic Peninsula and
Palaeogeographic regulation of glacial events during the Cretaceous supergreenhouse
It is shown that the palaeogeography typifying the Cenomanian–Turonian renders the Earth System resilient to glaciation with no perennial ice accumulation occurring under prescribed CO2 levels as low as 420 p.p.m.