Temperament in the rat: sex differences and hormonal influences on harm avoidance and novelty seeking.


This study showed large and consistent individual differences in 64 rats (32 males) in the hole board and canopy test, which are considered to measure exploration and anxiety, respectively. Nonestrous females were more active than males and nose poked more in the hole board. In the canopy test, nonestrous females, compared with males, showed greater… (More)


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