Temazepam Triggers the Release of Vasopressin into the Rat Hypothalamic Paraventricular Nucleus: Novel Insight into Benzodiazepine Action on Hypothalamic–Pituitary–Adrenocortical System Activity During Stress

  title={Temazepam Triggers the Release of Vasopressin into the Rat Hypothalamic Paraventricular Nucleus: Novel Insight into Benzodiazepine Action on Hypothalamic–Pituitary–Adrenocortical System Activity During Stress},
  author={Tobias Welt and Mario Engelmann and Ulrich Renner and Angelika Erhardt and Marianne B. M{\"u}ller and Rainer Landgraf and Florian Holsboer and Martin E. Keck},
We investigated the influence of a representative classical benzodiazepine on the regulation of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenocortical (HPA) axis activity both under basal conditions and stress. Adult male Wistar rats were intravenously administered with temazepam (0.5, 1, and 3 mg/kg body weight) and plasma concentrations of corticotropin (ACTH) and vasopressin (AVP) were measured in blood samples collected via chronically implanted jugular venous catheters. Simultaneously, the release of… 
GABA Regulates the Rat Hypothalamic‐Pituitary‐Adrenocortical Axis via Different GABA‐A Receptor α‐Subtypes
It is shown here that positive modulators of α1‐subtype containing GABA‐A receptors with zolpidem increase HPA activity in terms of increase in plasma corticosterone and induction of Fos in the PVN, whereas activation of non‐α1‐ subtype GABA-A receptors using L‐818,417 (10 mg/kg) likely inhibits the activity.
Anxiogenic role of vasopressin during the early postnatal period: maternal separation-induced ultrasound vocalization in vasopressin-deficient Brattleboro rats
The results indicate that the anxiolytic effect of vasopressin deficiency (both genetic and pharmacological) exists already during the early postnatal age and might have a direct effect on special brain areas as mood regulation does not go parallel with glucocorticoid levels.
Long-term anxiolytic and antidepressant-like behavioural effects of tiagabine, a selective GABA transporter-1 (GAT-1) inhibitor, coincide with a decrease in HPA system activity in C57BL/6 mice
Assessment of anxiolytic and antidepressant-like properties of tiagabine after acute and chronic administration in C57BL/6JOlaHsD mice with paroxetine as a positive control indicates that both acute and long-term anxioleytic and antidepressants properties of brain GAT-1 inhibition coincide with a reduction in HPA system activity in mice.
Lysine vasopressin blocks the effect of chlorodiazepoxide in behavioral tests
The data obtained in this study show that LVP in behavioral tests related to anxieties presents an inhibitory action on the BDZ, and the LVP alone does not present any significant effect when compared with the veh (p > 0.05).
Corticotropin-releasing factor, vasopressin and receptor systems in depression and anxiety
  • M. Keck
  • Medicine, Psychology
    Amino Acids
  • 2006
The cumulative evidence makes a strong case implicating dysfunction of genes involved in regulation of corticotropin releasing factor and vasopressin in the etiology and pathogenesis of depression and pathological anxiety.
Understanding the effects of chronic benzodiazepine use in depression: a focus on neuropharmacology.
The oppositional neuropharmacological interactions between chronic benzodiazepine use and antidepressant mechanism of action, which could result in reduced antidepressant efficacy and function in depression are discussed.
Pro-Social Behavior In Rats Requires An Affective Motivation
It is demonstrated that rodent helping behavior is motivated by an affective state of anxiety and antagonized by physiological stress.
Anxiolytic Treatment Impairs Helping Behavior in Rats
Results suggest that helping a trapped rat has a greater motivational value than does chocolate and the need for a helper to resonate with the affect of a victim is clearly demonstrated.


Vasopressin from hypothalamic magnocellular neurons has opposite actions at the adenohypophysis and in the supraoptic nucleus on ACTH secretion
It is concluded that vasopressin from the hypothalamic–neurohypophysial system participates in the regulation of the hormonal stress response in a counterbalanced manner at the level of the SON and the adenohypophysis.
The stress-, but not corticotropin-releasing hormone-induced activation of the pituitary-adrenal axis in man is blocked by alprazolam.
The effects of the triazolobenzodiazepine alprazolam on both the stress- and CRH-induced changes in ACTH, cortisol, and prolactin secretion were investigated in ten healthy volunteers.
GABA-A agonist muscimol inhibits stimulated vasopressin release in the posterior pituitary of Sprague-Dawley, Wistar, Wistar-Kyoto and spontaneously hypertensive rats.
There was no difference in vasopressin content in the pituitary between the WKY and the SHR but the levels were lower compared to the SPD rat, and inhibitory effects of muscimol was not statistically different between the strains expressed in ratios.
Behavioural impact of intraseptally released vasopressin and oxytocin in rats
The results demonstrate that combined physical and emotional stress selectively triggers the release of vasopressin within all brain areas under study but not into the general circulation, and the observed dissociation between central and peripheral nonapeptide release supports the hypothesis that plasma vasoppressin and oxytocin concentrations do not necessarily reflect central release patterns.
Alprazolam attenuates vasopressin-stimulated adrenocorticotropin and cortisol release: evidence for synergy between vasopressin and corticotropin-releasing hormone in humans.
This study is the first to find that APZ inhibits AVP-stimulated ACTH and cortisol release and suggests that CRH/AVP synergy is an important physiological mechanism for ACTH release in humans, as indicated by the blunted ACTH response to AVP after APZ-mediated acute CRH deprivation.
Stimulation of vasopressin release by gamma-aminobutyric acid antagonists in spinal cord transected rats.
The data from this study suggest that blockade of tonic GABAergic inhibition by GABA antagonists causes the release of vasopressin into the systemic circulation which results in a pressor response in spinal rats.