Telencephalic neurons monosynaptically link brainstem and forebrain premotor networks necessary for song.

@article{Roberts2008TelencephalicNM,
  title={Telencephalic neurons monosynaptically link brainstem and forebrain premotor networks necessary for song.},
  author={Todd Freeman Roberts and Marguerita E Klein and M. Fabiana Kubke and J. Martin Wild and Richard Mooney},
  journal={The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience},
  year={2008},
  volume={28 13},
  pages={3479-89}
}
Birdsong, like human speech, is a series of learned vocal gestures resulting from the coordination of vocal and respiratory brainstem networks under the control of the telencephalon. The song motor circuit includes premotor and motor cortical analogs, known as HVC (used as a proper name) and RA (the robust nucleus of the arcopallium), respectively. Previous studies showed that HVC projects to RA and that RA projection neurons (PNs) topographically innervate brainstem vocal-motor and respiratory… CONTINUE READING

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