National attention has been drawn to the near epidemic rates of teen-age pregnancy in this country, with greater psychological understanding of this problem cited as a research need. This paper reviews available literature on teen contraceptive compliance with particular focus on the development of self-regulation. In this first section, programs designed to enhance teens' choice and use of birth control are reviewed, with specific attention given to emerging issues and methodological concerns. In the second section, studies that examine factors predictive of contraceptive use in teen-age girls are discussed. This literature is grouped according to three conceptual systems: medical perspectives, behavioral theory, and self-regulation and self-control approaches. A summary is presented, specifying ways in which conceptually based research findings can assist in program development to address the problem of teen pregnancy.