OBJECTIVE To report the modified technique and the short-term results of simultaneous pancreas-kidney transplantation (SPK) with the enteric drainage (ED) of exocrine secretions. METHODS From June 2000 to August 2006, thirty-eight patients with diabetes complicated with uremia underwent SPK. The pancreas graft was placed intraperitoneally with exocrine secretions drained into the proximal jejunum without Roux-en-Y procedure. The mean cold ischemic times of pancreas and kidney were (10 +/- 2.0) h and (7 +/- 2.0) h, respectively. Quadruple immunosuppressive therapy with antilymphocyte globulin or anti-CD25 monoclonal antibody, tacrolimus, mycophenolate mofetil and steroids was adopted except one patient. RESULTS The 6-month survival rates of patients and grafts were both 97.4% after transplantation. All patients achieved insulin-free euglycemia at (7 +/- 6.9) d postoperative except one. For preoperative patients, mean fasting insulin and C-peptide values were (9 +/- 8.1) mU/L and (6 +/- 4.5) mU/L. After operation, fasting insulin and C-peptide values of patients were (12 +/- 5.8) mU/L and (6 +/- 4.7) mU/L, respectively, which peaked to an insulin level of (57 +/- 43.0) mU/L and a C-peptide level of (11 +/- 6.8) mU/L with stimulation. There were eight cases of delayed renal graft function. All other patients achieved immediate renal graft function. No graft losses occurred due to leakage or intra-abdominal infection. The most common surgical complications were wound infection (n = 12), enteric anastomostic hemorrhage (n = 5) and perirenal hemorrhage (n = 2). Three patients (7.9%) had been reoperated for the reasons of intra-abdominal hemorrhage and perirenal hemorrhage. CONCLUSIONS SPK is an effective treatment option for selected patients with diabetes mellitus and approaching end-stage renal disease. Enteric exocrine drainage by direct side-to-side anastomosis (without Roux-en-Y) seems to be a simple and reliable technique.