In avian species' common sites for blood sampling include the basilic, jugular, and superficial plantar metatarsal veins, heart and occipital sinus. The lateral thoracic vein is also used in the turkey. The sites with the least trauma to the animal are the basilic, superficial plantar metatarsal, and lateral thoracic veins from which adequate volumes of blood can be obtained. Heart puncture and occipital sinus sampling procedures are expedient and large volumes of blood can be obtained however these sites are the most traumatic. The superficial plantar metatarsal vein was the site for best repeat sampling in the duck and the chicken and the basilic in the turkey.