Studies and practical application of androgenesis and gynogenesis in sturgeon are significantly hindered by strong influence of ploidy restoration treatment on survivability of progeny; therefore, developed method of production of tetraploid broodstock and, consequently, use of their diploid gametes might help to avoid ploidy restoration treatment. In the present study, for the first time was developed a protocol for tetraploidy induction in 2 model sturgeon species, sterlet () and Siberian sturgeon (). A high efficiency of treatment was achieved by optimization of heat shock using a temperature of 37°C for 2 min timed between the end of female pronuclei formation and the beginning of pronuclei migration, that is, 0.8 to 1.0 τ (duration of 1 mitotic cycle during the period of synchronous cleavage division). Fertilized eggs developed in tetraploid larvae, up to 31 (89.6% in control) and 34% (70.9% in control) in sterlet and Siberian sturgeon, respectively. Most of the tetraploid larvae exhibited body malformations; as a result, consequent large scale study revealed high larval mortality, which drastically decreased after 2 mo of age. Consequent comparison of BW, length, and malformation rate and mortality between diploid and tetraploid progeny of sterlet did not reveal significant differences in fitness of diploid and tetraploid juveniles at 9 and 11 mo of age. The present study can be considered the first step towards improving the androgenesis methods of conservation of endangered sturgeons as well as understanding the sturgeon sex determination system through induction of mitotic gynogenesis.