Taxonomic selectivity and continuous variation in mass and background extinctions of marine taxa

  title={Taxonomic selectivity and continuous variation in mass and background extinctions of marine taxa},
  author={Michael L McKinney},
  • M. McKinney
  • Published 1987
  • Environmental Science, Geography
  • Nature
Analysis of extinction rates1,2 has gone a long way towards identifying the approximate time and magnitude of major mass-extinction episodes in Earth's history: late Ordovician, late Devonian, late Permian, late Triassic, and late Cretaceous. Here I extend an earlier analysis3 and present patterns of family-level background and mass-extinction rates for ten major marine groups. I show that (1) except for the late Permian event, mass-extinction rates for each taxon were often not higher than… 
Impacts and marine invertebrate extinctions
  • N. Macleod
  • Geography, Environmental Science
    Geological Society, London, Special Publications
  • 1998
Abstract The Phanerozoic history of life has been interrupted by at least 17 different stage-level episodes of elevated extinction intensity. These range from major turnovers that affected the
A framework for the integrated analysis of the magnitude, selectivity, and biotic effects of extinction and origination
Abstract. The taxonomic and ecologic composition of Earth's biota has shifted dramatically through geologic time, with some clades going extinct while others diversified. Here, we derive a metric
Background extinction and mass extinction of the brachiopods from chalk of Northwest Europe
The white monotonous chalk from the Upper Cretaceouslowermost Tertiary ofNorthwest Europe spans at least 24 million years and contains a rich, well-preserved fauna of minute brachiopods. Based on
Nonmarine Mass Extinctions
  • S. Lucas
  • Geography, Environmental Science
    Paleontological Research
  • 2021
Abstract. A critical review of putative nonmarine mass extinctions associated with the so-called “Big 5 mass extinctions” of marine invertebrates (Late Ordovician, Late Devonian, end Permian, end
Mid-Pleistocene extinction of bathyal benthic foraminifera in the Caribbean Sea
During the mid-Pleistocene Transition (MPT), 2 families, 14 genera and 41 species of benthic foraminifera (Extinction Group) declined in abundance (8–12 % of early Pleistocene benthic foraminiferal
Selectivity of foraminiferal extinction in the late Eocene
Late Eocene foraminiferal extinction shows diverse patterns of selective morphologic and latitudinal extinction. Taxa with discoidal shape, calcareous tests, and narrow and low-latitudinal ranges are
Diversification and extinction in the history of life.
  • M. Benton
  • Geography, Environmental Science
  • 1995
Analysis of the fossil record of microbes, algae, fungi, protists, plants, and animals shows that the diversity of both marine and continental life increased exponentially since the end of the Precambrian, but no support was found for the periodicity of mass extinctions.
Mass extinction of ocean organisms at the Paleozoic-Mesozoic boundary: Effects and causes
At the end of the Permian, at the boundary between the Paleozoic and Mesozoic (251.0 ± 0.4 Ma), the largest mass extinction of organisms on the Earth occurred. Up to 96% of the species of marine
Phanerozoic extinctions: How similar are they to each other?
  • A. Boucot
  • Environmental Science, Geography
  • 1990
A brief account of the major Phanerozoic extinction events suggests that each one has a flavor all its own. Major extinction events involving varied combinations of different taxonomic levels, such
Patterns of generic extinction in the fossil record.
Analysis of the stratigraphic records of 19,897 fossil genera indicates that most classes and orders show largely congruent rises and falls in extinction intensity throughout the Phanerozoic. Even an


Background and Mass Extinctions: The Alternation of Macroevolutionary Regimes
Comparison of evolutionary patterns among Late Cretaceous marine bivalves and gastropods during times of normal, background levels of extinction and during the end-Cretaceous mass extinction
Mass extinction patterns of marine invertebrate groups and some implications for a causal phenomenon
There is little consistency among events in terms of which taxonomic groups were most or least affected; however, adaptive groupings do exhibit consistency: benthic, mobile organisms suffered significantly fewer extinctions than sessile suspension feeders, while the pelagic organisms apparently suffered the most.
Impact Theory of Mass Extinctions and the Invertebrate Fossil Record
The paleontological record bears witness to terminal-Cretaceous extinctions on two time scales: a slow decline unrelated to the impact and a sharp truncation synchronous with and probably caused by the impact.
A kinetic model of Phanerozoic taxonomic diversity; III, Post-Paleozoic families and mass extinctions
The good fit of this model to data on Phanerozoic familial diversity suggests that many of the large-scale patterns of diversification seen in the marine fossil record of animal families are simple consequences of nonlinear interrelationships among a small number of parameters that are intrinsic to the evolutionary faunas and are largely (but not completely) invariant through time.
Periodic extinction of families and genera.
Time-series analysis of eight major episodes of biological extinction of marine families over the past 250 million years strongly suggests a 26-million-year periodicity, robust even when adjusted for simultaneous testing of many trial periods.
Mass Extinctions in the Marine Fossil Record
A new compilation of fossil data on invertebrate and vertebrate families indicates that four mass extinctions in the marine realm are statistically distinct from background extinction levels. These
Mass Mortality and Its Environmental and Evolutionary Consequences
The data indicate that at the end of Cretaceous, when a high proportion of the ocean's planktic organisms were eliminated, an associated reduction in productivity led to a partial transfer of dissolved carbon dioxide from the oceans to the atmosphere, which resulted in a large increase of the atmospheric carbon dioxide during the next 50,000 years, which is believed to have caused a temperature rise revealed by the oxygen-isotope data.
Biological extinction in earth history.
  • D. Raup
  • Geography, Environmental Science
  • 1986
A drop in sea level and climatic change are most frequently invoked to explain mass extinctions, but new theories of collisions with extraterrestrial bodies are gaining favor.
Macroevolution: Pattern and Process
It is argued that only "quantum speciation" (rapid and radically divergent), can explain the story of life revealed in the fossil record; macroevolution, he contends, cannot be attributed to microevolutionary forces such as mutation, genetic drift and natural selection.