The application of taurine (2-aminoethanesulfonic acid) induces a long-lasting increase of synaptic efficacy and axon excitability (LLP-TAU) in rat hippocampal CA1 area. After taurine withdrawal, LLP-TAU lasted at least 3 h. This fact prompted us to assess whether the mechanisms involved in the maintenance of this particular potentiation were similar to those implicated in the late phase of long-term potentiation (L-LTP). In the presence of KN-62, an inhibitor of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase, taurine perfusion (10 mM, 30 min) did not affect the induction of LLP-TAU. However, LLP-TAU maintenance was completely suppressed by KT5720, an inhibitor of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA). Moreover, the late phase of LLP-TAU was blocked by inhibiting protein synthesis with anisomycin. In addition, taurine perfusion increased the phosphorylation of cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB), although did not affect cAMP levels. These features of LLP-TAU do not appear to be caused by the activation of D1/D5 dopamine receptors, as taurine also induced synaptic potentiation in the presence of SCH23390, an antagonist of this type of receptors. Finally, the late phase of both L-LTP and LLP-TAU occluded mutually. These results suggest that taurine triggers the sequence of some of the molecular events involved in the induction of L-LTP.