Targeting the RAS-dependent chemoresistance: The Warburg connection.

RAS protein family members (KRAS4A, KRAS4B, HRAS and NRAS) function as GDP-GTP-regulated on-off switches, which regulate cytoplasmic-nuclear signaling networks ruling diverse normal cellular processes. Constitutive activating mutations in RAS genes are found in up to 30% of human cancers, and remarkably, the oncogenic Ras mutations and mutations in other… (More)