Targeting the IRE1α/XBP1 and ATF6 arms of the unfolded protein response enhances VEGF blockade to prevent retinal and choroidal neovascularization.

@article{Liu2013TargetingTI,
  title={Targeting the IRE1α/XBP1 and ATF6 arms of the unfolded protein response enhances VEGF blockade to prevent retinal and choroidal neovascularization.},
  author={Li Liu and Xiaoping Qi and Zhijuan Chen and Lynn Shaw and Jun Cai and Layton H Smith and Maria B Grant and Michael Boulton},
  journal={The American journal of pathology},
  year={2013},
  volume={182 4},
  pages={
          1412-24
        }
}
Although anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) treatments reduce pathological neovascularization in the eye and in tumors, the regression is often not sustainable or is incomplete. We investigated whether vascular endothelial cells circumvent anti-VEGF therapies by activating the unfolded protein response (UPR) to override the classic extracellular VEGF pathway. Exposure of endothelial cells to VEGF, high glucose, or H2O2 up-regulated the X-box binding protein-1/inositol-requiring… CONTINUE READING
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