Collateral Damage Intended-Cancer-Associated Fibroblasts and Vasculature Are Potential Targets in Cancer Therapy.
Expression of Migration inducting gene-7 (Mig-7) is limited to tumor cells and to date not found in normal tissues. Multiple tumor microenvironment factors, such as epidermal and hepatocyte growth factors, in concert with alphavbeta5 integrin ligation, induce Mig-7 mRNA expression. Gain or loss of Mig-7 protein studies shows that Mig-7 promotes invasion of colon and endometrial carcinoma cells. These data led us to hypothesize that targeting Mig-7 through various methods could decrease invasion, enhance monocyte cell killing of tumor cells, and inhibit disease progression. To begin testing this hypothesis, an in vitro chemoinvasion assay of endometrial carcinoma cells treated with Mig-7-specific or control antibodies was used. Mig-7 antibody significantly reduced invasion by >60% compared with controls. In another approach to test this hypothesis, an in vitro analysis of peptide-stimulated human peripheral blood monocyte cells and their killing of MCF-7 breast carcinoma cells was used. Mig-7 peptide treatment increased monocyte cell tumor necrosis factor expression and killing of MCF-7 cells 30-fold over no peptide stimulation and 3-fold over MUC-1 or control peptide treatments. Furthermore, stably expressing Mig-7-specific short hairpin RNA resulted in significantly reduced Mig-7 protein levels and early primary tumor growth in a xenograft nude mouse model. Reduced phosphorylation of ERK1/2, Akt, and S6 kinase as well as decreased membrane-type 1 matrix metalloproteinase activity were mechanisms through which Mig-7 protein caused these effects. Based on these collective data, Mig-7 expression could be a potential candidate for future targeted cancer therapies.