Targeting hypoxia at the forefront of anticancer immune responses.

  title={Targeting hypoxia at the forefront of anticancer immune responses.},
  author={Muhammad Zaeem Noman and Salem Chouaib},
  volume={3 12},
Hypoxia influences immune checkpoint receptors and their respective ligands. In support, we recently demonstrated that hypoxia selectively upregulates programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1) on myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) via hypoxia inducible factor 1 α (HIF-1α) binding to a hypoxia-response element (HRE) in the PD-L1 proximal promoter. Furthermore, blockade of PD-L1 under hypoxic conditions enhanced MDSC-mediated T-cell activation by attenuating MDSC secretion of IL-6 and IL-10. 
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