Cancer stem cells (CSCs) have been defined as cells within tumor that possess the capacity to self-renew and to cause the heterogeneous lineages of cancer cells that comprise the tumor. They have been identified in blood, breast, brain, colon, melanoma, pancreatic, prostate, ovarian, lung cancers and so on. It is often considered to be associated with chemo-resistance and radio-resistance that lead to the failure of traditional therapies. Most therapies are directed at the fast growing tumor mass but not the slow dividing cancer stem cells. Eradicating cancer stem cells, the root of cancer origin and recurrence, has been thought as a promising approach to improve cancer survival or even to cure cancer patients. Understanding the characteristics of cancer stem cells will help to develop novel therapies to eliminate the initiating cancer stem cell, and the relevant patents on the cancer stem cell and cancer therapy by cancer stem cells will be discussed.