Recombinant adenovirus (Ad) vectors continue to be the preferred vectors for gene therapy and the study of gene function because they are relatively easy to construct, can be produced at high titer, and have high transduction efficiency. However, in some applications gene transfer with Ad vectors is less efficient because the target cells lack expression of the primary receptor, coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor (CAR). Another problem is the wide biodistribution of vector in tissue following in vivo gene transfer because of the relatively broad tissue expression of CAR. To overcome these limitations, various approaches have been developed to modify Ad tropism. In one approach, the capsid proteins of Ad are modified, such as with the addition of foreign ligands or the substitution of the fiber with other types of Ad fiber, in combination with the ablation of native tropism. In other approaches, Ad vectors are conjugated with adaptor molecules, such as antibody and fusion protein containing an anti-Ad single-chain antibody (scFv) or the extracellular domain of CAR with the targeting ligands, or chemically modified with polymers containing the targeting ligands. In this paper, we review advances in the development of targeted Ad vectors.