Target-hardening at a New York City Subway Station: Decreased Fare Evasion — at What Price?


This paper evaluates the effect of the installation of "high-wheel" turnstiles on the incidence of fare evasion at a subway station in New York City. Ridership, summons and arrest data at the treatment station and two adjacent control stations suggest that the new high-wheel turnstiles were somewhat effective in reducing fare evasion, with little evidence… (More)


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