Tardive dyskinesia: prevalence and risk factors, 1959 to 1979

  title={Tardive dyskinesia: prevalence and risk factors, 1959 to 1979},
  author={John M. Kane and J. M. Powis Smith},
  journal={Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology},
  • J. Kane, J. M. Smith
  • Published 1 April 1982
  • Psychology, Medicine
  • Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology
Fifty-six prevalence surveys of tardive dyskinesia (TD) in neuroleptic-treated patients are reviewed, yielding an average prevalence of 20% as compared with 5% prevalence of "spontaneous" dyskinesia in 19 samples of untreated individuals. Reported prevalence has increased during the past two decades and is not attributable simply to the more widespread use of rating scales. Controlled studies of a variety of risk factors are reviewed and suggest that advancing age and, to a lesser extent… 
Tardive dyskinesia: prevalence, incidence, and risk factors.
Age remains the risk factor most consistently associated with TD development; it may also relate to increased persistence and female sex among older populations, diagnosis of affective disorder, and evidence of neuroleptic-induced pseudoparkinsonism also related to increased risk.
Risk factors for tardive dyskinesia in a large population of youths and adults.
Higher cumulative levels of "typical" neuroleptic dosage decreased the risk for TD for those over 18 and the benefit of personality disorder in individuals 18 to 40 years old and the strong risk factor of profound mental retardation in all age groups.
Tardive dyskinesias and drugs
The incidence of tardive dyskine‐sia among relatively young patients of varying diagnoses exposed to neuroleptics appears to be approximately 3–4% per year of cumulative neuroleptic exposure, at least for the first 6 years of such treatment.
Tardive dyskinesia in Italy: preliminary findings.
The aim of the present study was to measure the prevalence of TD in Italy and to pay attention to early detection and accurate measurement of TD.
The prevalence of tardive dyskinesia in neuroleptic-treated diabetics. A controlled study.
Neuroleptic-treated diabetics had a significantly higher prevalence and severity of tardive dyskinesia, and it is suggested that diabetes mellitus should be examined further as a risk factor for tardiv dysKinesia.
Epidemiology of Tardive Dyskinesia
Despite the uncertainty surrounding the amount of risk for the manifestations of TD ascribable to neuroleptic treatment, there is little doubt that such agents contribute to the risk.
Persistent tardive dyskinesia: demographic and pharmacological risk factors
The results support the view that both vulnerability factors and high neuroleptic doses contribute to the occurrence of TD and further stress the relevance of a conservative use of antipsychotic medication, particularly in older women.
An update on tardive dyskinesia.
The authors review recent research on definition, diagnosis, neuropathophysiology, treatment, management, and factors that increase risk of tardive dyskinesia, a severe and often unremitting movement
A prospective study of tardive dyskinesia in Japan
The results suggest that the incidence of tardive dyskinesia in Japan is lower in Japan than that in Europe and North America.
Morbidity and mortality in tardive dyskinesia: associations in chronic schizophrenia
Chronic schizophrenic patients with tardive dyskinesia constitute a more biologically disadvantaged group, suggesting a broader disease concept of the syndrome.