Tardive Dyskinesia

@article{Aia2011TardiveD,
  title={Tardive Dyskinesia},
  author={Pratibha G. Aia and Gonzalo J. Revuelta and Leslie Jameleh Cloud and Stewart A. Factor},
  journal={Current Treatment Options in Neurology},
  year={2011},
  volume={13},
  pages={231-241}
}
Opinion statementTardive dyskinesia (TD) is iatrogenic (drug-induced); hence the best strategy is prevention. Try to limit exposure to any dopamine receptor blocking agents (DRBAs) if possible. These agents may be unavoidable in some psychiatric conditions such as schizophrenia, but alternative therapies can be used in many situations, such as in the treatment of depression, anxiety, gastrointestinal conditions, and other neurologic conditions, including migraines and sleep disorders. When… 

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Valbenazine: First Global Approval

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The milestones in the development of valbenazine leading to its first global approval in the USA for the treatment of adults with tardive dyskinesia are summarized.

References

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Therapeutic strategies against tardive dyskinesia. Two decades of experience.

Although neuroleptics are significantly superior to most other methods of treatment in suppressing signs of dyskinesia, the safety of their long-term use in dyskinetic patients remains to be demonstrated.

Vitamin E for neuroleptic-induced tardive dyskinesia.

Small trials of limited quality suggest that vitamin E may protect against deterioration of TD, but there is no evidence thatitamin E improves symptoms of this problematic and disfiguring condition once established.

Tardive dyskinesia: prevalence, incidence, and risk factors.

Age remains the risk factor most consistently associated with TD development; it may also relate to increased persistence and female sex among older populations, diagnosis of affective disorder, and evidence of neuroleptic-induced pseudoparkinsonism also related to increased risk.

A therapeutic approach to tardive dyskinesia.

  • S. Fahn
  • Medicine, Psychology
    The Journal of clinical psychiatry
  • 1985
Treatment with reserpine and discontinuance of antipsychotic drugs was useful for patients with severe symptoms of tardive dyskinesia or akathisia; complete remission with elimination of all drugs was achieved in 4 of 19 treated patients, without recurrence of symptoms.

Effects of Amantadine on Tardive Dyskinesia: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study

The severity of TD movements in patients receiving amantadine improved significantly more than in those receiving placebo, as measured by the AIMS score, which was statistically significant for incapacitation and Clinical Global Impression score.

Tetrabenazine treatment for tardive dyskinesia: assessment by randomized videotape protocol.

Tetrabenazine was well tolerated and resulted in significant improvements in AIMS scores for patients with refractory tardive dyskinesia, particularly on the motor subset of the modified Abnormal Involuntary Movement Scale.

Effects of levetiracetam on tardive dyskinesia: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.

Levetiracetam appeared effective for TD in this study, and the mechanisms of its therapeutic effect are unclear but may involve reducing neuronal hypersynchrony in basal ganglia.

Tardive dyskinesia associated with metoclopramide.

Long term treatment with metoclopramide is accompanied by a substantial risk of developing tardive dyskinesia especially among elderly people, and this risk is higher among patients aged 70 years or more.

A controlled trial of amantadine hydrochloride and neuroleptics in the treatment of tardive dyskinesia.

An 18-week, double-blind, crossover study of amantadine and neuroleptics in the treatment of tardive dyskinesia indicates that amantADine is significantly better than placebo in the management of TD and there is little risk of exacerbating psychosis.