Tardive Dyskinesia

@article{Aia2011TardiveD,
  title={Tardive Dyskinesia},
  author={Pratibha G. Aia and Gonzalo J Revuelta and Leslie Jameleh Cloud and Stewart A. Factor},
  journal={Current Treatment Options in Neurology},
  year={2011},
  volume={13},
  pages={231-241}
}
Opinion statementTardive dyskinesia (TD) is iatrogenic (drug-induced); hence the best strategy is prevention. Try to limit exposure to any dopamine receptor blocking agents (DRBAs) if possible. These agents may be unavoidable in some psychiatric conditions such as schizophrenia, but alternative therapies can be used in many situations, such as in the treatment of depression, anxiety, gastrointestinal conditions, and other neurologic conditions, including migraines and sleep disorders. When… 
Tardive Dyskinesia: Therapeutic Options for an Increasingly Common Disorder
TLDR
It is demonstrated that second-generation antipsychotics do, indeed, cause TD and, in fact, the frequency is likely higher than expected because of growing off-label uses and a tripling of prescriptions written in the last 10 years.
VMAT2 inhibitors for the treatment of tardive dyskinesia
TLDR
Characterization of the VMAT2 inhibitor tetrabenazine, which was identified as a therapeutic agent for TD in older clinical trials, has yielded two distinct pharmacologic strategies to optimize response, which led to a resurgence of interest in the characterization and treatment of this movement disorder.
Drug-Induced Dyskinesia, Part 2: Treatment of Tardive Dyskinesia
TLDR
Treatment strategies include slow taper of the offending agent and use of dopamine-depleting agents like tetrabenazine, while deep brain stimulation is usually reserved for patients with disabling motor fluctuations, LID, and for severe TS that cannot be managed medically.
Strategies for managing drug-induced tardive dyskinesia
TLDR
Tardive dyskinesia involves abnormal, involuntary movements, usually involving tlie face and, sometimes, the limbs and is the most concerning because it often is difficult to treat and may be irreversible.
A Case of Tardive Dyskinesia in the Last Weeks of Life
TLDR
A patient with widely metastatic squamous cell carcinoma of the lung who developed severe TD when treated with chlorpromazine for severe hiccups was able to effectively suppress his TD with haloperidol, and this approach may be a viable management strategy for patients with TD and very limited prognosis.
Keeping up with the clinical advances: tardive dyskinesia
Tardive dyskinesia (TD) was first described in 1964, but treatment for this sometimes poorly characterized condition lagged decades as it was labored by medico-legal implications. TD has often been
Persistent Lingual Dyskinesia and Protrusion Due To Clomipramine and Risperidone
TLDR
A 41 year-old female patient presented to the psychiatry clinic with complaints of speaking difficulty and involuntary tongue movements (ITM) and was diagnosed as drug induced persistent lingual dyskinesia.
A unifying theory for the pathoetiologic mechanism of tardive dyskinesia.
TLDR
TD likely develops due to changes across the synapse and terminology such as 'dopamine receptor supersensitivity' can be misleading, so 'Synaptic upregulation' may be a more correct term.
A Cervical Dystonia Successfully Treated with Tetrabenazine Augmentation of Clozapine and Botox.
Introduction Tetrabenazine is a presynaptic depleter of dopamine, a monoamine storage inhibitor that was first introduced in the 1970s for the management of hyperkinetic movement disorders and which
Cannabidiol prevents haloperidol-induced vacuos chewing movements and inflammatory changes in mice via PPARγ receptors
TLDR
CBD could prevent haloperidol-induced orofacial dyskinesia by activating PPARγ receptors and attenuating neuroinflammatory changes in the striatum, according to the results.
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References

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Therapeutic strategies against tardive dyskinesia. Two decades of experience.
TLDR
Although neuroleptics are significantly superior to most other methods of treatment in suppressing signs of dyskinesia, the safety of their long-term use in dyskinetic patients remains to be demonstrated.
Vitamin E for neuroleptic-induced tardive dyskinesia.
TLDR
Small trials of limited quality suggest that vitamin E may protect against deterioration of TD, but there is no evidence thatitamin E improves symptoms of this problematic and disfiguring condition once established.
Tardive dyskinesia: prevalence, incidence, and risk factors.
TLDR
Age remains the risk factor most consistently associated with TD development; it may also relate to increased persistence and female sex among older populations, diagnosis of affective disorder, and evidence of neuroleptic-induced pseudoparkinsonism also related to increased risk.
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TLDR
Treatment with reserpine and discontinuance of antipsychotic drugs was useful for patients with severe symptoms of tardive dyskinesia or akathisia; complete remission with elimination of all drugs was achieved in 4 of 19 treated patients, without recurrence of symptoms.
Effects of Amantadine on Tardive Dyskinesia: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study
TLDR
The severity of TD movements in patients receiving amantadine improved significantly more than in those receiving placebo, as measured by the AIMS score, which was statistically significant for incapacitation and Clinical Global Impression score.
Tetrabenazine treatment for tardive dyskinesia: assessment by randomized videotape protocol.
TLDR
Tetrabenazine was well tolerated and resulted in significant improvements in AIMS scores for patients with refractory tardive dyskinesia, particularly on the motor subset of the modified Abnormal Involuntary Movement Scale.
Successful treatment of tardive lingual dystonia with botulinum toxin: Case report and review of the literature
TLDR
Injection of 50 U of BTX-A into each genioglossal muscle dramatically improved tongue protrusion within few days with a sustained effect and the application seems to be well tolerated with only minor side effects.
Effects of levetiracetam on tardive dyskinesia: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.
TLDR
Levetiracetam appeared effective for TD in this study, and the mechanisms of its therapeutic effect are unclear but may involve reducing neuronal hypersynchrony in basal ganglia.
Tardive dyskinesia associated with metoclopramide.
TLDR
Long term treatment with metoclopramide is accompanied by a substantial risk of developing tardive dyskinesia especially among elderly people, and this risk is higher among patients aged 70 years or more.
Clonazepam treatment of tardive dyskinesia: a practical GABAmimetic strategy.
TLDR
Tolerance developed to the antidyskinetic effect of clonazepam in the five patients whose long-term use of the drug was followed, but a 2-week clonzepam-free period recaptured its antidys Kinetic effect.
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