Tardigrades use intrinsically disordered proteins to survive desiccation

  title={Tardigrades use intrinsically disordered proteins to survive desiccation},
  author={Thomas C. Boothby and Samantha Piszkiewicz and Alex S. Holehouse and Rohit V. Pappu and Gary J. Pielak},

Tardigrade small heat shock proteins can limit desiccation-induced protein aggregation

It is found that tardigrade sHSPs were sufficient to improve desiccation tolerance when expressed in E. coli, and purification and subsequent analysis revealed that these proteins can form large complexes in vitro, similar to oligomeric assemblies documented for other sH SPs.

Stress-dependent cell stiffening by tardigrade tolerance proteins through reversible formation of cytoskeleton-like filamentous network and gel-transition

It is proposed that CAHS proteins are novel cytoskeletal proteins that form filamentous networks and undergo gel-transition in a stress-dependent manner to provide on-demand physical stabilization of cell integrity against deformative forces during dehydration and also contribute to the exceptional physical stability in a dehydrated state.

Tardigrades: an imaging approach, a record of occurrence, and a biodiversity inventory

ii Acknowledgements iv Dedication vi Table of

The resolved mystery of tardigrades

Recent phylogenomics studies based on expression sequence tag (EST) and micro RNAs (miRNAs) have confirmed the phylogenetic position of tardigrades as a sister group of the arthropods.

Paradoxes and wonders of intrinsic disorder: Stability of instability

  • V. Uversky
  • Biology
    Intrinsically disordered proteins
  • 2017
The “stability of instability” paradox is introduced by introducing the intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) characterized by the lack of stable 3D-structure to demonstrate their ability to sustain exposure to extremely harsh environmental conditions.

Stress-dependent dynamic and reversible formation of cytoskeleton-like filaments and gel-transition by tardigrade tolerance proteins

It is proposed that CAHS proteins are novel cytoskeletal proteins that form filamentous networks and undergo gel-transition in a stress-dependent manner to provide on-demand physical stabilization of cell integrity against deformative forces during dehydration and contribute to the exceptional stability of dehydrated tardigrades.

Facing Adversity: Dormant Embryos in Rotifers

It is hypothesized that similar mechanisms at the organism level will lead to similar adaptive consequences at the population level across taxa, among which the formation of egg banks, the coexistence of species, and the possibility of differentiation among populations and local adaptation stand out.


This is the first study to demonstrate tardigrade potential for tolerance to hypergravity and describe expected effects on tardigrate survival and reproduction, and will prove to be useful in lithopanspermia research.

Natural and engineered mediators of desiccation tolerance stabilize Human Blood Clotting Factor VIII in a dry state

This study demonstrates the effectiveness of tardigrade CAHS proteins and other mediators of desiccation tolerance at preserving the function of a biologic without the need for the cold-chain, and demonstrates that engineering approaches can tune natural products to serve specific protective functions, such as coping with desICcation cycling versus thermal stress.

Secondary structure and stability of a gel‐forming tardigrade desiccation‐tolerance protein

Protein‐based pharmaceuticals are increasingly important, but their inherent instability necessitates a “cold chain” requiring costly refrigeration during production, shipment, and storage. Drying



Desiccation Tolerance and Water-Retentive Mechanisms in Tardigrades

The permeability slump allows animals to retain considerable amounts of internal water when desiccated, although less water is retained if the desiccation rate is increased, and this may determine upper tolerable desICcation rates if a certain minimum quantity of water is required for the metabolic synthesis of membrane protectants.

Trehalose accumulation in the tardigrade Adorybiotus coronifer during anhydrobiosis

Data support the hypotheis that trehalose generally serves a protective role in desiccation- tolerant Metazoa, but indicate that tardigrades require only a moderate level for efficient pro- tection.

Random coil chemical shifts in acidic 8 M urea: Implementation of random coil shift data in NMRView

A set of random coil chemical shifts obtained for model peptides under experimental conditions used in studies of denatured proteins is presented and incorporated into a software interface for NMRView, allowing selection of the random coil data set that fits the experimental conditions best.

Trehalose and anhydrobiosis in tardigrades – evidence for divergence in responses to dehydration

The accumulation of trehalose is demonstrated in developing tardigrade embryos, which have been shown to have a high level of desiccation tolerance, and, for the first time, is shown in species of the order Parachela.

Highly Hydrophilic Proteins in Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes Are Common during Conditions of Water Deficit*

It is demonstrated that the criterion that defines hydrophilins seems to be an excellent predictor of responsiveness to hyperosmosis since most of the genes encoding these proteins in E. coli and S. cerevisiae are induced by osmotic stress.

Vitrification is essential for anhydrobiosis in an African chironomid, Polypedilum vanderplanki

Anhydrobiosis is an extremely dehydrated state in which organisms show no detectable metabolism but retain the ability to revive after rehydration. Thus far, two hypotheses have been proposed to

Suggested Involvement of PP1/PP2A Activity and De Novo Gene Expression in Anhydrobiotic Survival in a Tardigrade, Hypsibius dujardini, by Chemical Genetic Approach

This study screened 81 chemicals and identified 5 chemicals that significantly impaired anhydrobiotic survival after severe desiccation, in contrast to little or no effect on survival after high humidity exposure only, and identified inhibitory chemicals that could provide novel clues to elucidate the regulatory mechanisms underlying anHydrobiosis in tardigrades.

Trehalose in three species of desiccation tolerant tardigrades

The presence of the disaccharide trehalose was found in three desiccation tolerant tardigrades, with increased levels in dehydrated specimens of MacRobiotus islandicus, and possibly also in Macrobiotus krynauwi, both belonging to the family Macrobioticidae.

Two Novel Heat-Soluble Protein Families Abundantly Expressed in an Anhydrobiotic Tardigrade

A novel repertoire of major heat-soluble proteins in these anhydrobiotic animals is revealed and it is revealed that tardigrades might have evolved novel protein families with a heat- soluble property.

Novel Mitochondria-Targeted Heat-Soluble Proteins Identified in the Anhydrobiotic Tardigrade Improve Osmotic Tolerance of Human Cells

The findings of the present study revealed that tardigrade mitochondria contain at least two types of heat-soluble proteins that might have protective roles in water-deficient environments.