Tapered progesterone withdrawal enhances behavioral and molecular recovery after traumatic brain injury

@article{Cutler2005TaperedPW,
  title={Tapered progesterone withdrawal enhances behavioral and molecular recovery after traumatic brain injury},
  author={Sarah Melissa Cutler and Edward H. Pettus and Stuart W. Hoffman and Donald G. Stein},
  journal={Experimental Neurology},
  year={2005},
  volume={195},
  pages={423-429}
}

Slow-release and injected progesterone treatments enhance acute recovery after traumatic brain injury

Efficacy of progesterone following a moderate unilateral cortical contusion injury.

TLDR
Progesterone (PROG) failed to alter both cortical edema and tissue sparing at any dose, bringing into question the clinical usefulness of PROG as an effective treatment for all types of brain injury.

Progesterone Treatment Shows Benefit in a Pediatric Model of Moderate to Severe Bilateral Brain Injury

TLDR
The findings suggest that a midline CCI injury to the frontal cortex will reliably produce a moderate TBI comparable to what is seen in the adult male rat and that progesterone can ameliorate the injury-induced deficits.

A Combination Therapy of Nicotinamide and Progesterone Improves Functional Recovery following Traumatic Brain Injury.

TLDR
The combination treatment of NAM and Prog led to a significant improvement in both neuroprotection at 24 h post-injury and recovery of function in sensorimotor related tasks when compared with individual treatments.

Sustained delivery of nicotinamide limits cortical injury and improves functional recovery following traumatic brain injury.

TLDR
The present results suggest that NAM delivered via a clinically relevant therapeutic regimen may truncate behavioral damage following TBI, and offer strong support for translation into the clinical population.

Progesterone Treatment Shows Benefit in Female Rats in a Pediatric Model of Controlled Cortical Impact Injury

TLDR
Pre-pubescent female rats with midline CCI injury to the frontal cortex have reduced morphological and functional deficits following progesterone treatment, which produced beneficial effects in young rats of both sexes following CCI.

Progesterone treatment alters neurotrophin/proneurotrophin balance and receptor expression in rats with traumatic brain injury.

TLDR
Some of PROG's protective effects after TBI are mediated, in part, by simultaneous induction of pro-survival neurotrophin signaling and inhibition of apoptotic proneurotrophicin signaling.
...

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Progesterone Protects against Necrotic Damage and Behavioral Abnormalities Caused by Traumatic Brain Injury

TLDR
Results show that 5 days of postinjury progesterone treatment are needed to reduce significantly the neuropathological and behavioral abnormalities found in a rodent model of TBI.

Progesterone exacerbates striatal stroke injury in progesterone-deficient female animals.

TLDR
Exogenous progesterone therapy does not ameliorate histological injury after MCAO in previously ovariectomized, adult female rats, and chronic progestersone administration can exacerbate infarction in subcortical regions.

Neuroprotective effect of postischemic administration of progesterone in spontaneously hypertensive rats with focal cerebral ischemia.

TLDR
Administration of progesterone to male rats 2 hours after MCA occlusion reduces ischemic brain damage and improves neurological deficit even 7 days after ischemia.

Progesterone Facilitates Cognitive Recovery and Reduces Secondary Neuronal Loss Caused by Cortical Contusion Injury in Male Rats

TLDR
Progesterone-treated rats were less impaired on a Morris water maze spatial navigation task and showed less neuronal degeneration 21 days after injury in the medial dorsal thalamic nucleus, a structure that has reciprocal connections with the contused area.

Progesterone protects against lipid peroxidation following traumatic brain injury in rats.

TLDR
Data suggest progesterone has antioxidant effects and support its potential as a treatment for brain injury, and compare brain levels of 8-isoprostaglandin F2 alpha, a marker of lipid peroxidation, after cortical contusion in male rats treated with either progester one or the oil vehicle.

Effects of the duration of progesterone treatment on the resolution of cerebral edema induced by cortical contusions in rats.

TLDR
The data are consistent with earlier findings showing that longer durations of progesterone administration lead to more complete behavioral recovery as well as to an increased number of surviving neurons.