Tanshinone IIA induces mitochondria dependent apoptosis in prostate cancer cells in association with an inhibition of phosphoinositide 3-kinase/AKT pathway.
Tanshinone IIA (Tan IIA; 14,16-epoxy-20-nor-5(10),6,8,13,15-abietapentaene-11,12-dione), a phytochemical derived from the roots of Salvia miltiorrhiza BUNGE, has been reported to posses anti-angiogenic, anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and apoptotic activities. However, the cancer growth inhibitory/cytocidal effects and molecular mechanisms in prostate cancer cells have not been well studied. In the present study, we demonstrate that Tan IIA significantly decreased the viable cell number of LNCaP (phosphate and tensin homolog (PTEN) mutant, high AKT, wild type p53) prostate cancer cells more sensitively than against the PC-3 (PTEN null, high AKT, p53 null) prostate cancer cells. Tan IIA significantly increased TdT-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) positive index and sub-G1 DNA contents of treated cells, consistent with apoptosis. Tan IIA treatment led to cleavage activation of pro-caspases-9 and 3, but not pro-caspase-8, and cleavage of poly (ADP ribose) polymerase (PARP), a caspase-3 substrate. Additionally, Tan IIA treatment induced cytochrome c release from the mitochondria into the cytosol and reduced mitochondrial membrane potential and suppressed the expression of mitochondria protective Bcl-2 family protein Mcl-1(L). Tan IIA reduced the expression of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) p85 subunit, and the phosphorylation of AKT and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) in a concentration-dependent manner. Moreover, the combination of Tan IIA and LY294002, a specific PI3K inhibitor, enhanced PARP cleavage of LNCaP and PC-3, but not in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells which do not contain detectable active AKT. The findings suggest that Tan IIA-induced apoptosis involves mitochondria intrinsic caspase activation cascade and an inhibition of the PI3K/AKT survival pathway.