Tandem shock wave cavitation enhancement for extracorporeal lithotripsy.

@article{Loske2002TandemSW,
  title={Tandem shock wave cavitation enhancement for extracorporeal lithotripsy.},
  author={Achim M. Loske and Fernando Enrique Prieto and Federico Fernandez and Javier van Cauwelaert},
  journal={Physics in medicine and biology},
  year={2002},
  volume={47 22},
  pages={
          3945-57
        }
}
Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) has been successful for more than twenty years in treating patients with kidney stones. Hundreds of underwater shock waves are generated outside the patient's body and focused on the kidney stone. Stones fracture mainly due to spalling, cavitation and layer separation. Cavitation bubbles are produced in the vicinity of the stone by the tensile phase of each shock wave. Bubbles expand, stabilize and finally collapse violently, creating stone-damaging… CONTINUE READING
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