author={Elinor Keane},
  journal={Journal of the International Phonetic Association},
  pages={111 - 116}
  • E. Keane
  • Published 1 January 2004
  • Journal of the International Phonetic Association
Tamil is a Dravidian language spoken by 53 million speakers in India, according to census figures from 1991, predominantly in the state of Tamil Nadu. There are also sizeable communities of Tamil speakers elsewhere, including Sri Lanka, Malaysia and Singapore, in all of which it has the status of a national language. Tamil is diglossic, the formal or ‘literary’ variety still largely conforming to standards set in the thirteenth century by the Tamil grammarian Pavanandi. It is used in almost all… 
A bird's eye view of Tamil in South Africa
Abstract This article provides a sociolinguistic overview of Tamil, the language that once had the greatest number of speakers amongst the Indian South Africans. It ocuses on the following four
A Grammar of Upcountry Sri Lanka Malay
Sri Lanka Malay is a variety of Malay which has undergone heavy influence from its adstrates Sinhala and Tamil since the first Malay immigrants arrived in Ceylon in the 17th century. While the
Talking Tamil, Talking Saivism: Language practices in a Tamil Hindu temple in Australia
The role of religion for migrants in Australia has generated much interest in recent years. A growing area of scholarly inquiry is how religion can assist in migrant language maintenance. This thesis
The Impact of Standard Spoken Tamil in Singapore Tamil Classrooms
This paper examines recent changes in the teaching of Tamil in Singapore to students from Tamil language homes. Tamil is a diglossic language, with a formal or H variety that is used mainly in
Variation and change in English /r/ among Tamil Indian Singaporeans
Department of English Language and Literature, National University of Singapore Correspondence RebeccaLurie Starr,DepartmentofEnglish LanguageandLiterature, FacultyofArts and Social
The case of addressees in Dravido-Portuguese
This article is a study of the Dravido-Portuguese creoles of the Malabar (modern-day Kerala, India) and Sri Lanka in terms of the formal means they use to mark the addressee arguments of various
Orthographic Knowledge, Reading and Spelling Development in Tamil: The First Three Years
Tamil (tamiḻ) is a South Dravidian language with a contained orthography in contrast to the other more extensive akshara orthographies of South Asia. In this chapter we briefly describe the Tamil
Literary and Colloquial Dialect Identification for Tamil using Acoustic Features
The current work proposes a way to identify two popular and broadly classified Tamil dialects, namely literary and colloquial Tamil, by using acoustical characteristics rather than phonetics and phonotactics, alleviating the requirement of language-dependant linguistic tools.
The intonation of South Asian languages: towards a comparative analysis
South Asia has long been considered a region of widespread convergence in phonology, morphology, and syntax. While these claims have not explicitly been extended to intonation in previous work,
The Homogenization of Ethnic Differences in Singapore English? A Consonantal Production Study
Con consonantal production in SgE is found to be largely independent of substrate influence and relatively uniform across the three ethnicities, which sheds light on bilinguals’ acquisition of sounds, and provides phonological evidence toward the understanding of the evolutionary process of postcolonial Englishes.


The two r’s and the two n’s in Tamil
Abstract: In Tamil, a Dravidian language spoken in South India, there are two orthographic symbols representing the n sounds and two other orthographic symbols representing the tap [ſ] and the trill
Standardization or restandardization: The case for “Standard” Spoken Tamil
The Tamil language has had its current standard written form since the 13th century; but because of increasing diglossia, spoken Tamil dialects have now diverged so radically from earlier norms,
Geometry, kinematics, and acoustics of Tamil liquid consonants.
This study illustrates the use of multiple techniques--static palatography, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and magnetometry) for investigating both static and dynamic articulatory characteristics using a single native speaker of Tamil.
Non-quantal aspects of consonant production: a study of retroflex consonants
Abstract: Quantal theory suggests that there is a set of discrete places of articulation that are used by languages. We can find no evidence to support this notion in the case of retroflex stops. We
Tamil liquids: An investigation into the basis of the contrast among five liquids in a dialect of Tamil
The Brahmin dialect of Tamil (Dravidian) has an unsual inventory of five distinctive liquid sounds : plain and retroflex rhotics, and plain and retroflex laterals, and a fifth liquid which has been
Intervocalic double nasal and lateral consonant articulations in Tamil
Abstract: This paper gives the results of an experimental investigation of the lengthening or doubling of intervocalic nasal and lateral consonants in Tamil. The Direct Palatograph and the
Echo words in Tamil
  • D.Phil. dissertation, University of Oxford. LADEFOGED, P. & BHASKARARAO,
  • 2001
Echo words in Tamil
  • 2001
Echo words in Tamil. D.Phil. dissertation
  • 2001
Intervocalic plosives in Tamil
  • 1984