Takotsubo cardiomyopathy (TC) is characterized by transient left ventricular apical wall motion abnormalities, chest pain with electrocardiographic changes, and modest myocardial enzymatic release mimicking acute coronary syndrome, but without significant coronary artery disease. TC is an increasingly recognized type of acquired cardiomyopathy occurring commonly after a recent stressful event, in particular emotional stress, and is relatively common in middle-aged and older women. The pathogenetic mechanism remains unknown. Catecholamine surge related to emotional distress seems to play a major role in the pathogenesis of this cardiomyopathy, rendering TC a type of neurocardiological disorder that manifests as acute but reversible heart failure. Clinicians should consider this syndrome in the differential diagnosis of patients presenting with clinical findings suggestive of acute coronary syndrome, especially in postmenopausal women with a recent history of acute emotional or physical stress.