In 1990, when the first GM herbicide tolerant and Bt crops were created, the expectations were high – too high, as we know now. Bt and herbicide tolerance were predicted by the makers to be either out of trade and replaced by custom-tailored plants by 2000 or just a general background of all crop varieties. In reality, we now find ourselves still stuck with the same first generation of traits in the same four GM crops: there are hardly any other traits in terms of market share. What has happened to the grand claims? Have GM crops delivered the promised yield increases? And has GMO risk assessment been reliable, is the biosafety of GM crops guaranteed?