Tadpoles and vacuum bubbles in light-front quantization

@article{Chabysheva2022TadpolesAV,
  title={Tadpoles and vacuum bubbles in light-front quantization},
  author={Sophia S. Chabysheva and John R. Hiller},
  journal={Physical Review D},
  year={2022}
}
We develop a method by which vacuum transitions may be included in light-front calculations. This allows tadpole contributions which are important for symmetry-breaking effects and yet are missing from standard light-front calculations. These transitions also dictate a nontrivial vacuum and contributions from vacuum bubbles to physical states. In nonperturbative calculations these separate classes of contributions (tadpoles and bubbles) cannot be filtered; instead, we regulate the bubbles and… 
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