Reports on intensive care and invasive treatments of primates are scarce. Generally, there is little knowledge and experience in regard to resuscitation, cardiac support and ventilation support especially in small infants of primate species. We therefore report on our experience with respect to the successful treatment of a former small-for-date chimpanzee infant with severe cardiorespiratory distress due to pneumonia inflicted by an unknown infective agent. Treatment was primarily with analgosedation, oxygen application and dobutamine infusions. Cooperation of neonatologists and veterinarians is recommended for treatment of young primates.