TWEAK causes myotube atrophy through coordinated activation of ubiquitin-proteasome system, autophagy, and caspases.

Abstract

Proinflammatory cytokine TWEAK has now emerged as a key mediator of skeletal muscle-wasting in many catabolic conditions. However, the mechanisms by which TWEAK induces muscle proteolysis remain poorly understood. Here, we have investigated the role of ubiquitin-proteasome system, autophagy, and caspases in TWEAK-induced muscle wasting. Addition of TWEAK to C2C12 myotubes stimulated the ubiquitination of myosin heavy chain (MyHC) and augmented the expression of E3 ubiquitin ligase MuRF1. Pretreatment of myotubes with proteasome inhibitors MG132 or lactacystin or knockdown of MuRF1 by RNAi blocked the TWEAK-induced degradation of MyHC and myotube atrophy. TWEAK increased the expression of several autophagy-related molecules. Moreover, the inhibitors of autophagy improved the levels of MyHC in TWEAK-treated myotubes. TWEAK also increased activity of caspases in C2C12 myotubes. Pan-caspase or caspase 3 inhibitory peptide inhibited the TWEAK-induced loss of MyHC and myotube diameter. Our study demonstrates that nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) transcription factor is essential for TWEAK-induced expression of MuRF1 and Beclin1. Furthermore, our results suggest that caspases contribute, at least in part, to the activation of NF-κB in response to TWEAK treatment. Collectively, the present study provides novel insight into the mechanisms of action of TWEAK in skeletal muscle.

DOI: 10.1002/jcp.22821
0501002011201220132014201520162017
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@article{Bhatnagar2012TWEAKCM, title={TWEAK causes myotube atrophy through coordinated activation of ubiquitin-proteasome system, autophagy, and caspases.}, author={Shephali Bhatnagar and Ashwani Mittal and Sanjay Kumar Gupta and Ashok Kumar}, journal={Journal of cellular physiology}, year={2012}, volume={227 3}, pages={1042-51} }