author={Larue Tone Hosmer},
  journal={Academy of Management Review},
  • L. Hosmer
  • Published 1 April 1995
  • Philosophy
  • Academy of Management Review
Numerous researchers have proposed that trust is essential for understanding interpersonal and group behavior, managerial effectiveness, economic exchange and social or political stability, yet according to a majority of these scholars, this concept has never been precisely defined. This article reviews definitions from various approaches within organizational theory, examines the consistencies and differences, and proposes that trust is based upon an underlying assumption of an implicit moral… 
The Ethical Limits of Trust in Business Relations
  • B. Husted
  • Business
    Business Ethics Quarterly
  • 1998
Abstract: This article defines and analyzes the nature of a trust relation. It specifically examines the internal and external morality of trust relations and the ethical limits of those relations.
Moral and Amoral Conceptions of Trust, with an Application in Organizational Ethics
Across the management, social science, and business ethics literatures, and in much of the philosophy literature, trust is characterized as a disposition to act given epistemic states—beliefs and/or
Institutional context of trust
The dynamics of trust have perplexed academicians and practitioners alike. However, it continues to remain as an elusive and evasive area of study. The perception of trustworthiness in times of
Communicating Organizational Trust: An Exploration of the Link Between Discourse and Action
Communication has frequently received attention in studies on trust. One question that has remained unanswered is, How is organizational trust communicated? Consistent with the view of organizations
Who Trusts Who?: The Role of Individual and Organizational Level in Determining the Nature of Inter-Organizational Trust
The results suggest that the trusting party is not the organization itself, but the individuals who constitute it and the ultimate object of trust in inter-organizational settings is both individual boundary-spanners, and the organization.
Trust, Morality and International Business
Abstract: This paper argues that trust is one of the crucial bases for an international business morality. To defend this claim, it identifies three prominent senses of trust in the current
Trust in managerial relationships
Despite significant theoretical work over the past decade, the phenomenon of trust and the process of its development in managerial relationships remain elusive in theory and practice. This paper
Ethical leadership and trust: It's all about meeting expectations
In this study, we examine the effects of different ethical leadership behaviors, as perceived by followers, on the trust that those followers have in their leader. In line with the ethical leadership
The Buyer–Supplier Relationship: An Integrative Model of Ethics and Trust
The buyer–supplier relationship is the nexus of the economic partnership of many commercial transactions and is founded upon the reciprocal trust of the two parties that participate in this economic
Trust and distrust in organizations: emerging perspectives, enduring questions.
  • R. Kramer
  • Business
    Annual review of psychology
  • 1999
The chapter concludes by examining some of the psychological, social, and institutional barriers to the production of trust, and describes different forms of trust found in organizations, and the antecedent conditions that produce them.


Trust in Business Relations: Directions for Empirical Research
Scholars in a wide variety of fields have become more deeply interested in the concept of trust. Many theorists prescribe greater trust as a necessary antidote for an increasingly litigious and
Trust as a Social Reality
Although trust is an underdeveloped concept in sociology, promising theoretical formulations are available in the recent work of Luhmann and Barber. This sociological version complements the
A Behavioral Decision Theory Approach to Modeling Dyadic Trust in Superiors and Subordinates
The relative importances of five determinants of dyadic trust (integrity, competence, consistency, loyalty, and openness) were investigated from two perspectives: trust in superiors and trust in
Toward Understanding and Measuring Conditions of Trust: Evolution of a Conditions of Trust Inventory
Ten conditions of trust were suggested by 84 interviews of managers, and two previous studies of managerial trust. Statements made in the interviews and the studies were used to develop a content
Price, Authority, and Trust: From Ideal Types to Plural Forms
This review article focuses on the three control mechanisms that govern economic transactions between actors: price, authority, and trust. In contrast to conventional approaches that view market and
A new scale for the measurement of interpersonal trust.
  • J. Rotter
  • Psychology
    Journal of personality
  • 1967
This definition clearly departs significandy from Enkson's (1953) broad use of the concept of basic trust, and an expectancy that others can be believed must be an important variable m human learmng in general.
The Social Control of Impersonal Trust
  • S. Shapiro
  • Political Science
    American Journal of Sociology
  • 1987
How do societies control trust relationships that are not embedded in structures of personal relations? This paper discusses the guardians of impersonal trust and discovers that, in the quest for
Business Ethics and Extant Social Contracts
Extant social contracts, deriving from communities of individuals, constitute a significant source of ethical norms in business. When found consistent with general ethical theories through the
Trust and Managerial Problem Solving
A model of trust and its interaction with information flow, influence, and control is presented and an experiment based on the model indicates that shared trust or lack of trust apparently are a significant determinant of managerial problem-solving efectiveness.
Exchange and Power in Social Life
In his landmark study of exchange and power in social life, Peter M. Blau contributes to an understanding of social structure by analyzing the social processes that govern the relations between