Transient receptor potential channels as drug targets: from the science of basic research to the art of medicine.
We examined the molecular pharmacology and in vivo effects of a TRPV1 receptor antagonist, N-(4-Tertiarybutylphenyl)-4(3-cholorphyridin-2-yl)-tetrahydro-pyrazine1(2H) - carboxamide (BCTC) on the guinea pig TRPV1 cation channel. BCTC antagonized capsaicin-induced activation and PMA-mediated activation of guinea pig TRPV1 with IC50 values of 12.2 +/- 5.2 nM, and 0.85 +/- 0.10 nM, respectively. In addition, BCTC (100 nM) completely blocked the ability of heterologously expressed gpTRPV1 to respond to decreases in pH. Thus, BCTC is able to block polymodal activation of gpTRPV1. Furthermore, in nodose ganglia cells, capsaicin induced Ca2+ influx through TRPV1 channel was inhibited via BCTC in a concentration dependent manner. In in vivo studies capsaicin (10 - 300 muM) delivered by aerosol to the pulmonary system of non-sensitized guinea pigs produced an increase in cough frequency. In these studies, the tussigenic effects of capsaicin (300 muM) were blocked in a dose dependent fashion when BCTC (0.01-3.0 mg/kg, i.p.) was administered 30 minutes before challenge. The high dose of BCTC (3.0 mg/kg, i.p) produced a maximum inhibition of capsaicin-induced cough of 65%. We also studied the effects of BCTC (0.03 and 3.0) when administered 60 minutes before capsaicin. Under these conditions, BCTC (3.0 mg/kg, i.p) produced a maximum decrease in capsaicin-induced cough of 31%. In ovalbumin passively sensitized guinea pigs, we found that BCTC (1 and 3 mg/kg, i.p.) attenuated antigen ovalbumin (0.3%) cough responses by 27% and 60%, respectively. We conclude that TRPV1 channel activation may play role in cough mediated by antigen in sensitized guinea pigs. Our results supports increasing evidence that TRPV1 may play a role in the generation of the cough response.