Canonical transient receptor potential (TRPC) channels are plasma membrane cation channels included in the TRP superfamily. TRPC1 is expressed widely in the central nervous system and is linked to group I metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs). In the auditory brainstem, TRPC1 expression has never been described, although group I mGluRs are present. In the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (CIC), activation of group I mGluRs induces an extracellular Ca(2+) influx after store depletion. Therefore, this study examines whether TRPC1 is expressed in this region to establish a correlation with mGluRs. By quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting, this study assesses the presence of TRPC1 along with both group I mGluR subtypes mGluR1 and mGluR5 in the rat inferior colliculus (IC). All these molecules present a robust expression in the IC. By confocal double immunofluorescence, this study also demonstrates that TRPC1 colocalizes with parvalbumin, a CIC neuronal marker, in many cells. Conversely, TRPC1 was lacking in glial fibrillary acidic protein-positive glial cells. All the glutamate acid decarboxylase 67 (GAD67)-immunoreactive neurons and many GAD67-negative neurons were positive to TRPC1, which indicates the presence of TRPC1 in γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-ergic and non-GABAeregic neurons. With regard to subcellular distribution, TRPC1 was absent in synaptophysin-immunoreactive axonic terminals but colocalized with postsynaptic marker microtubule-associated protein 2 in cell bodies and dendrites. TRPC1 totally overlapped group I mGluRs, which supports the involvement of TRPC1 in the mGluR pathway and, likely, in auditory signal processing at the midbrain level. .