TRAM is specifically involved in the Toll-like receptor 4–mediated MyD88-independent signaling pathway

@article{Yamamoto2003TRAMIS,
  title={TRAM is specifically involved in the Toll-like receptor 4–mediated MyD88-independent signaling pathway},
  author={Masahiro Yamamoto and Shintaro Sato and Hiroaki Hemmi and Satoshi Uematsu and Katsuaki Hoshino and Tsuneyasu Kaisho and Osamu Takeuchi and Kiyoshi Takeda and Shizuo Akira},
  journal={Nature Immunology},
  year={2003},
  volume={4},
  pages={1144-1150}
}
Recognition of pathogens by Toll-like receptors (TLRs) triggers innate immune responses through signaling pathways mediated by Toll–interleukin 1 receptor (TIR) domain–containing adaptors such as MyD88, TIRAP and TRIF. MyD88 is a common adaptor that is essential for proinflammatory cytokine production, whereas TRIF mediates the MyD88-independent pathway from TLR3 and TLR4. Here we have identified a fourth TIR domain–containing adaptor, TRIF-related adaptor molecule (TRAM), and analyzed its… 
Microbial recognition by Toll-like receptors.
TLDR
Toll-like receptors sense invasion of microorganisms by detecting microbial components that are conserved among pathogens, and recognition of microbial components by TLRs triggers activation of the innate immune system, which culminate in pathogen-specific immune responses.
Modulation of Toll–interleukin 1 receptor mediated signaling
TLDR
Genetic and biochemical studies reveal that IL-1R uses adaptor molecule MyD88 to mediate a very complex pathway, involving a cascade of kinases organized by multiple adapter molecules into signaling complexes, leading to activation of the transcription factor NFκB.
[Toll-like receptor].
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  • Biology, Medicine
    Nihon Rinsho Men'eki Gakkai kaishi = Japanese journal of clinical immunology
  • 2005
TLDR
Several mechanisms that negatively control TLR signaling pathways and thereby prevent overactivation of innate immunity have been elucidated.
MyD88 Adapter-like (Mal)/TIRAP Interaction with TRAF6 Is Critical for TLR2- and TLR4-mediated NF-κB Proinflammatory Responses*
TLDR
The novel role for Mal is characterized in facilitating the direct recruitment of TRAF6 to the plasma membrane, which is necessary for TLR2- and TLR4-induced transactivation of NF-κB and regulation of the subsequent pro-inflammatory response.
TRAM Is Involved in IL-18 Signaling and Functions as a Sorting Adaptor for MyD88
TLDR
Findings suggest that TRAM serves as the sorting adaptor for MyD88 in IL-18 signaling, which then facilitates the signal transduction.
The TIR-Domain Containing Adaptor TRAM Is Required for TLR7 Mediated RANTES Production
TLDR
The results clearly demonstrate that TRAM plays a, hitherto unappreciated, role in TLR7 signaling through a novel signaling axis containing, but not limited to, MyD88, TRAM and IRF3 towards the activation of anti-viral immunity.
Toll-like receptor downstream signaling
TLDR
Results indicate that the interaction between individual TLRs and the different combinations of adapters directs appropriate responses against distinct pathogens.
Evolution and integration of innate immune recognition systems: the Toll-like receptors
  • K. Takeda
  • Medicine
    Journal of endotoxin research
  • 2005
TLDR
In innate immunity, innate immunity represents a skilful system that senses microbial invasion and initiates appropriate immune responses, and TIR domain-containing adaptors play essential roles in TLR signaling.
Phosphoinositide-Mediated Adaptor Recruitment Controls Toll-like Receptor Signaling
TLDR
It is demonstrated that TIRAP and MyD88 have distinct functions and that phosphoinositide-mediated adaptor recruitment initiates a specific signal-transduction pathway.
Evolution and integration of innate immune recognition systems: the Toll-like receptors.
TLDR
In innate immunity, innate immunity represents a skillful system that senses microbial invasion and initiates appropriate immune responses, and TIR domain-containing adaptors play essential roles in TLR signaling.
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