TRAM is specifically involved in the Toll-like receptor 4–mediated MyD88-independent signaling pathway

@article{Yamamoto2003TRAMIS,
  title={TRAM is specifically involved in the Toll-like receptor 4–mediated MyD88-independent signaling pathway},
  author={Masahiro Yamamoto and Shintaro Sato and Hiroaki Hemmi and Satoshi Uematsu and Katsuaki Hoshino and Tsuneyasu Kaisho and Osamu Takeuchi and Kiyoshi Takeda and Shizuo Akira},
  journal={Nature Immunology},
  year={2003},
  volume={4},
  pages={1144-1150}
}
Recognition of pathogens by Toll-like receptors (TLRs) triggers innate immune responses through signaling pathways mediated by Toll–interleukin 1 receptor (TIR) domain–containing adaptors such as MyD88, TIRAP and TRIF. MyD88 is a common adaptor that is essential for proinflammatory cytokine production, whereas TRIF mediates the MyD88-independent pathway from TLR3 and TLR4. Here we have identified a fourth TIR domain–containing adaptor, TRIF-related adaptor molecule (TRAM), and analyzed its… 

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TLDR
In innate immunity, innate immunity represents a skillful system that senses microbial invasion and initiates appropriate immune responses, and TIR domain-containing adaptors play essential roles in TLR signaling.
...

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